Presentation on theme: "Section 1-Preview Social change refers to new behaviors that have long-term and relatively important consequences. Discovery, invention, and diffusion."— Presentation transcript:
Section 1-Preview Social change refers to new behaviors that have long-term and relatively important consequences. Discovery, invention, and diffusion are the major social processes through which social change occurs. Important agents of social change are technology, population, the natural environment, revolution, and war.
Section 1-Key Terms social change social processes discovery invention diffusion technology revolution war
Section 1 Defining Social Change Social change occurs when many members of the society adopt new behaviors.Social change These behaviors must have long-term and important consequences. Human social change, in the scheme of history, has occurred in the “blink of an eye.” It is difficult to predict how a society will change.
Section 1 Defining Social Change (cont.) Reasons: –The course of change in a society depends on the nature of the existing culture. –Change does not merely “happen” to people.
Section 1 Social Processes Social processes involve a series of steps leading to change on a societal level.Social processes Key Assumptions in Predicting Social Change in America
Section 1 Social Processes (cont.) Three important social processes are: –Discovery—something is either learned or reinterpreted.Discovery –Invention—the creation of something new from items or processes that already exist.Invention –The pace of social change through invention is closely tied to how complex the society or culture already is.
Section 1 Social Processes (cont.) Other traits of diffusion: –The extent and rate of diffusion depends on the degree of social contact. –Borrowing may involve entire societies, or groups in the same society. –Diffusion—this occurs when one group borrows something from another group— norms, values, foods, styles of architecture.Diffusion
Section 1 Social Processes (cont.) –Before it is widely accepted, a borrowed element must harmonize with the group culture. –Diffusion may involve using only part of a borrowed characteristic or trait.
Section 1 Technology Technology includes knowledge and hardware that are used to achieve practical goals.Technology Technology is a prime promoter of social change.
Section 1 The Natural Environment Interaction with the natural environment has also transformed American life.
Section 1 Revolution and War A revolution involves sudden and complete overthrow of an existing social or political order.revolution According to one sociologist, a revolution results in the replacement of one set of power holders by another. Internet Connections
Section 1 Revolution and War (cont.) However, another sociologist claims that the post-revolutionary society eventually returns to one that is like the original one. In most cases, the new social order created by a successful revolution is likely to be a compromise between the old and the new.
Section 1 Revolution and War (cont.) War is organized, armed conflict that occurs within a society or between nations.War War brings about social change through diffusion, discovery, and invention.
Section 2-Preview The functionalist and conflict perspectives view social change in very different ways. The functionalist perspective depicts societies as being relatively stable. Following a major change, these integrated systems seek a new equilibrium. According to the conflict perspective, societies are unstable systems that are constantly undergoing change. Symbolic interactionism identifies decreasing shared values as a source of social instability.
Section 2 The Functionalist Perspective Dynamic/moving equilibrium—a society’s tendency to react to changes by making small adjustments to keep itself in a state of functioning and balance.equilibrium A society in change moves from stability to temporary instability and back to stability. Social Change
Section 2 The Conflict Perspective According to this perspective, social change is the result of struggles among groups for scarce resources. Social change is created as these conflicts are resolved. Ralf Dahrendorf believes that society changes as power relationships among interest groups change.
Section 2 Symbolic Interactionism According to symbolic interactionism, the nature and frequency of social interaction are affected by the extent to which people share meaning. As shared interpretations of the world decrease, social ties weaken and social interaction becomes more impersonal.
Section 2 Symbolic Interactionism (cont.) Urbanism is the distinctive way of life shared by people living in a city.Urbanism Ferdinard Tonnies believed that urbanism weakened the ties of social interaction.
Section 3-Preview Collective behavior describes how people behave when they are united by a singe short-term goal. Rumors, fads, fashions, mass hysteria, and panics are examples of collective behaviors. Crowds gather and behave in different ways depending on the stimuli and conditions present. Contagion theory and emergent norm theory describe crowd behavior.
Section 3-Key Terms collective behavior collectivity dispersed collectivity rumor urban legend fad fashion mass hysteria panic crowd mob riot contagion theory emergent norm theoryemergent norm theory convergence theory
Section 3 Defining Collective Behavior Collective behavior refers to spontaneous behavior of people who are responding to similar stimuli.Collective behavior Stimuli are outside events or persons that cause a response. Collectivity—a collection of people who do not normally interact and who do not share clearly defined norms.Collectivity
Section 3 Defining Collective Behavior (cont.) Collective behavior involves spontaneous social interaction in which loosely- connected participants influence one another’s behavior. Dispersed collectivity—people are widely scattered, but are in some ways following common rules or are responding to common stimuli.Dispersed collectivity
Section 3 Rumors, Legends, Fads, and Fashions A rumor is a widely-circulating story of questionable truth.rumor Rumors and gossip go hand in hand. Urban legends are moralistic tales passed along by people who swear the stories happened to someone they know or to an acquaintance of a friend or family member.Urban legends
Section 3 A fad is an unusual behavior pattern that spreads rapidly, is embraced zealously, and then disappears after a short time.fad A fashion is a behavior pattern that is widely approved, but is expected to change periodically.fashion Rumors, Legends, Fads, and Fashions (cont.)
Section 3 Automobile design, home decorating, architecture and politics are also subject to fashion. Slang is a language-based fashion. Rumors, Legends, Fads, and Fashions (cont.)
Section 3 Mass Hysteria and Panics Mass hysteria exists when collective anxiety is created by acceptance of one or more false beliefs.Mass hysteria Panic occurs when people react to a real threat in fearful, anxious, and often self- damaging ways.Panic
Section 3 Crowds A crowd is a temporary collection of people who share an immediate common interest.crowd An aggregate is composed of a collection of people who do not share an immediate common interest.
Section 3 Crowds (cont.) Four types of crowds: –Casual crowd—least organized, least emotional, and most temporary crowd –Conventional crowd—this crowd has a specific purpose and follows accepted norms for appropriate behavior –Expressive crowd—this crowd has no significant or long-term purpose beyond unleashing emotion
Section 3 Crowds (cont.) –Acting crowd—a crowd that takes some aggressive action toward a target A mob is an emotionally stimulated, disorderly crowd that is ready to use destructiveness and violence to achieve a common purpose.mob Strong leadership is necessary.
Section 3 Crowds (cont.) A riot is an episode of largely random destruction and violence carried out by a crowd.riot The targets of rioters are ones of convenience. Rioters tend to feel powerless and engage in this behavior to vent their frustrations.
Section 3 Theories of Crowd Behavior Three theories of crowd behavior: –Contagion theory states that as the emotional intensity in the crowd increases, people temporarily lose their individuality to the “will” of the crowd.Contagion theory
Section 3 Theories of Crowd Behavior (cont.) –Two versions of contagion theory: Gustave Le Bon believed that people in crowds were reduced to a subhuman level. Herbert Blumer believes that the basic process in crowds is a “circular reaction”— people mutually stimulating one another.
Section 3 Theories of Crowd Behavior (cont.) –Three stages of contagion theory : Milling—people move around in an aimless and random fashion. Collective excitement—crowd members become impulsive, unstable, and highly responsive to the actions and suggestions of others. Social contagion—behavior in this stage involves rigid, unthinking, and nonrational transmission of mood, impulse, or behavior.
Section 3 Theories of Crowd Behavior (cont.) –Emergent norm theory—this theory stresses the similarity between daily social behavior and crowd behavior.Emergent norm theory Norms guide behavior in both instances, so rules develop. The rules are emergent because the crowd participants are not aware of them until they find themselves in a situation. People in the crowd are present for a variety of reasons, and behave differently from one another.
Section 3 Theories of Crowd Behavior (cont.) –Convergence theory—in this theory, crowds are formed by people who deliberately congregate with others they know to be like-minded.Convergence theory
Section 4-Preview Social movements are more permanent and more organized than other types of collectivities. Theories to explain how social movements develop include value-added theory and resource mobilization theory.
Section 4-Key Terms social movement revolutionary movement reformative movement redemptive movement value-added theory
Section 4 The Nature of Social Movements The social movement is the most highly structured, rational, and enduring form of collective behavior.social movement Major Forms of Collective Behavior
Section 4 The Nature of Social Movements (cont.) Elements of a social movement: –A large number of people –A common goal to promote or prevent social change –Structured organization with commonly recognized leaders –Activity sustained over a relatively long time period
Section 4 Primary Types of Social Movements Four basic types of social movements: –A revolutionary movement attempts to change a society totally.revolutionary movement –A reformative movement aims to effect more limited changes in society.reformative movement –A redemptive movement focuses on changing people completely.redemptive movement
Section 4 Theories of Social Movements Two theories: –Value-added theory—each step in the creation of a product contributes, or adds value, to the final entity.Value-added theory
Section 4 Theories of Social Movements (cont.) Six conditions that must exist in order for social movements to occur: –Structural conduciveness—the environment must be social-movement friendly. –Structural strains—the presence of conflicts, ambiguities, and discrepancies must exist within a society.
Section 4 Theories of Social Movements (cont.) –Generalized beliefs—there must be a general recognition that there is a problem and agreement that something should be done to fix it. –Precipitation factors—one or more significant events must occur to galvanize people into action.
Section 4 Theories of Social Movements (cont.) –Mobilization of participants for action— the people must gather together and take action. –Social control—actions of the media, police, courts, community leaders, and political officials can lead to the success or failure of a social movement. Hot Buttons for College Activists