Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7 Section 1. Considered the Most advanced country of Europe Large population, prosperous foreign trade, was the center of the Enlightenment,"— Presentation transcript:
Considered the Most advanced country of Europe Large population, prosperous foreign trade, was the center of the Enlightenment, highly praised and imitated culture Truth Great unrest caused by bad harvests, high prices, high taxes, and questions raised by the philosophes
The Old Regime People were divided into three Estates – Social classes First Estate- Clergy Held 10% of the land in France Education and relief for poor 2% of income goes to the government Second Estate- Nobles 2% of the population, 20% of the land Third Estate- Everyone else Privileged Estates 1 st and 2 nd Had access to high offices and had exemptions from paying taxes
Third Estate 97% of the people 3 groups of the 3 rd estate Bourgeoisie ( middle Class) Educated and believed in Enlightenment Ideals Some were as rich as nobles, but the paid high taxes and lacked privileges guild privileges- exclusive rights to a trade in an area- given by King Felt like their wealth entitled them to a greater degree of social status and political power Urban Workers Poorest, got low wages and many times went hungry Peasants More than 80% of France's population Half their income went to dues for the nobles, tithes to the church, and taxes to the king’s agents * Third estate very discontent with the heavy burden and privileges given to others
3 big problems 1. New ideas about government The Enlightenment Inspired by the success of American Revolution Speeches at the Tuleries 2. Economic Problems Appeared sound because expansion of production and trade Taxes made it almost impossible to make business profitable Price of living up Crop failures make the price of bread go up- many starving Heavy debt b/c of aid the American Revolution
3. Indecisive leadership Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette Alliance between Austro-Hungarian Empire and France (Hapsburgs and Bourbons) Old Enemies Married when she was 15 and he was 16 Queen and king when 18 and 19 Marital problems = no children= rumors Libelles- “let them eat cake” Spending Habits Silliness of Versailles Hamlet Petit Trianon Privacy and Formality Dress Louis the Weak Leader More interest in his hobbies like lock making Took poor advice from ill informed people
Louis only option is to impose a tax on the 2 nd Estate Don’t allow him to so he has to call the Estates- General – an assembly made of representatives from all 3 estates. 1 st time it had met in 175 years, met in Versailles in May of 1789 Old Rules- Each estate meets in separate halls and each estate had 1 vote= 3 rd estate loses Louis make it 2 votes for the 3 rd estate What they want-each delegate gets a vote- Louis doesn’t allow it. 3 rd Estate stonewalls Emmanuel Joseph- Sieyes suggest they make a new legislative body
What is the Third Estate? Everything. What has it been until now in the political order? Nothing. What does it ask? To become something.
June 17, 1789 3 rd estate after long night of debate decides to establish the National Assembly Proclaims an end to absolute monarchy 1 st act of Revolution Tennis Court Oath Louis locks them out of their meeting room 3 days later meet on an indoor tennis court Take oath saying they won’t leave until they have written a new constitution 1 st and 2 nd estaters who want reform join them. Louis stations Swiss mercenaries around Versailles
Rumor has it Louis going to use mercenaries to dismiss the National Assembly or to kill citizens Attack the mercenaries- July 12, 1789 Demolish tax wall Storm a monastery looking for grain Create a new gov. and National guard Decide to go to the Bastille Prison for weapons Also seen as a symbol of Royal Power Only 7 people in the prison- most of them loony Hack of the guard’s head with a pocket knife than parade around with it on a pike July 14 Bastille day- like 4 th of July
Rebellion spreads to the countryside. Rumors make people panic Peasants arm themselves w/ pitchforks and break into noble’s houses, burn them down, etc. October 1789 Women riot over bread and march to Versailles. Are followed by national guard- have cannons guns, etc. First want answers from National Assembly Then turn to the king and queen- break into the palace and demand that they move to Paris. King of France to King of the French
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