Presentation on theme: "Monday, March 12, 2012. Freewrite! Hold your hands out in front of you, palms down. Imagine that you have a total of six strings tied around your fingers."— Presentation transcript:
MLA The MLA is the Modern Language Association. It is a group of professionals that meet annually and make decisions for formatting documents, etc, that are used in the Humanities fields.
Other Documentation Styles APA = American Psychological Association -ologies Chicago Style History
Basic Rules for MLA Format See MLA tab in Hacker Handbook 1” margins all around Name, professor, class, date in upper left corner (NOT in the header) Last name, page number in the upper right (in the header) Title: centered Full document should be double spaced Indent each new paragraph
Why Use Quotes We use quotes to show that we have experts who agree with what we have to say in our writing. We also use quotes to say things that other’s have already said better Or we use quotes when writing about literature to make a reference to a particular line, phrase, etc.
Example (research): My syllabus reflects a very mixed philosophy of teaching. I believe in free-writing to develop ideas, and that it doesn't need to be graded. It should be collected and used for participation points, but not for evaluation. I wouldn't want my notebook graded on the random thoughts I generate in class, so it would be unfair of me to expect different of my students. I also believe very strongly in the revision process, but also of giving grades. As Lad Tobin writes, "[e]ven the most process-oriented teachers acknowledge that a meaningful profess ought to lead eventually to some sort of written product" (Guide, 7).To that end, I have created a syllabus that allows time for multiple drafts for each major assignment, with the provision that the grade received on a "final draft" my be improved by further revision in time for the final portfolio project.
Example (literature): In J.R.R. Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings, the modern romantic epic, the main group of nine heroes follows a code of friendship to hold them together and see them through the dark times that they are trying to bring to a close. “Faithless is he that says farewell when the road darkens” (Tolkien, 274). Their friendship is one of undying loyalty to each other and the mission they have taken up. The Fellowship of nine is brought together with a common purpose and soon develops a close bond among the nine. But when one member of the Fellowship allows himself to be lured by the power of the Ring, the Fellowship crumbles and the members go on their separate ways to see to the ultimate goal of destroying the Ring the fighting the growing darkness spreading over Middle Earth. Though the Fellowship was reunited at the end, it wasn’t the same. The journey had cost the remaining eight members so much, that none of them were the same. The fault of one member caused the Fellowship to break, because he couldn’t uphold the unwritten code that they all agreed to live by.
How to use quotes Easiest thing to remember is this: Set up the quote Give the quote ○ Cite the quote Support/explain the quote You don’t want to just drop a quote in It has to be supported and tied back to your thoughts
Example: Shakespeare’s Hamlet is a character of much indecision. He waffles constantly over his courses of action. “To be, or not to be, that is the question,” may be one of the most famous lines from the play, but it also sets up Hamlet’s frame of mind (3.1.55). Throughout this soliloquy, Hamlet is questioning his decision to act, and reveal his uncle/step-father’s guilt in the death of the King.
Formatting Short Quotations In-text Examples: According to some, dreams express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184), though others disagree. According to Foulkes's study, dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (184). Is it possible that dreams may express "profound aspects of personality" (Foulkes 184)? Cullen concludes, "Of all the things that happened there / That's all I remember" (11- 12).
Formatting Long Quotations In-text Example: Nelly Dean treats Heathcliff poorly and dehumanizes him throughout her narration: They entirely refused to have it in bed with them, or even in their room, and I had no more sense, so, I put it on the landing of the stairs, hoping it would be gone on the morrow. By chance, or else attracted by hearing his voice, it crept to Mr. Earnshaw's door, and there he found it on quitting his chamber. Inquiries were made as to how it got there; I was obliged to confess, and in recompense for my cowardice and inhumanity was sent out of the house. (Bronte 78)
Adding/Omitting Words In-text Example for Adding Words: Jan Harold Brunvand, in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (78). In-text example for Omitting Words: In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale... and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (78).
Summarizing or Paraphrasing Sometimes you don’t want to use a whole quote but you want to explain someone’s ideas in your own words. This is paraphrasing or summarizing. Example: Hamlet’s indecision shows in his soliloquy in the first scene of the third act. When he questions whether or not to take action or suffer the consequences of inaction, he is struggling with ideas of not only justice, but loyalty to his mother and being a hormonal teenager (3.1.55-88).
Formatting Quotes and Paraphrase The period for the end of the sentence always goes on the outside of the ( ). If you follow up the quote with more words before the end of the sentence, put a comma before the close quote punctuation. “To be, or not to be, that is the question,” may be one of the most famous lines from the play, but it also sets up Hamlet’s frame of mind (3.1.55).
Citing Sources Whenever you quote in an essay, you must cite your source, that is, give credit to the original author. Whenever you reference an idea by another author (summarize or paraphrase), you must also give credit to the author. You must cite in two places: in text and at the end Each documentation style (MLA, APA) has its own way of documenting We’re going to focus on MLA, but your handbook has information on APA which maybe handy in other classes.
In text citation In MLA format, we use parenthetical citation. This means that after a quote, we put the source in parenthesis ( ) at the end of the sentence.
In-Text Citations: the Basics MLA uses parenthetical citations Parenthetical citations depend on the medium (e.g. Print, Web, DVD) Parenthetical citations also depend on the source’s entry on the Works Cited page Signal word in the text is the first thing in the corresponding entry on the Works Cited page
Author-Page Style In-text Example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process (263). Corresponding Works Cited Entry: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print.
What to put in the ( ) If you use the author’s name in the sentence (signal phrase), just put the page number in the ( ) If you just quote, put the author’s last name and page number in the ( ) If you use more than one source by the same author, include the title in the ( ) See page 191 in green book
Print Source with Author In-text Example: Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" (3). Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3).
Big Tip! Don’t try to memorize the way all this formatting should be done. There’s too much to try to remember. Keep your handbook (the green book) handy when you’re writing. I have a Master’s in English and I still have to look this stuff up.