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Presentation on theme: "It’s a Formula. Figure it Out. APA DOCUMENTATION: SUPER FUN AND SUPER COOL."— Presentation transcript:


2  Purdue Owl Purdue Owl  Landing page. Explore full resource in left sidebar  Cornell University Library Cornell University Library GOOD RESOURCES

3  Citation is a highly standardized and formatted way of showing where your research came from.  In theory, it allows readers of your paper to go find those sources and learn more for themselves.  It also protects you from charges of plagiarism, which sadly, are rampant at your level of University education. WHAT IS CITATION

4  MLA- literature, arts, and humanities  APA- psychology, education, social sciences  Chicago- books, magazines, other non-scholarly sources  Turabian- designed for any subject  AMA- medicine, health, and biology sciences  John Foster writes, “Moby Dick is a great book” (45).  MLA: Date of this statement is largely irrelevant  John Foster (2012) wrote, “Stem cell research is on the cutting edge of ethical discussions in science” (67).  APA: Date of this statement is extremely relevant WHY THE DIFFERENT KINDS

5  Many resources exist to generate citations for you if you just plug in the information  Word has this built in  Websites like Son of Citation Machine  I am not opposed to you using them. But they can be wrong or add info into the citation not needed  It’s worth knowing the formats to essentially check if the generator result is correct CITATION GENERATORS

6  Books, films, plays, and other large form pieces are placed in italics.  From Inquiry to Academic Writing  Hamlet  Dateline NBC  “Articles, short poems, individual television episodes, etc. are placed in quotation marks.”  “White Privilege: The Invisible Knapsack”  “The Road Not Taken” Capitalize Every Word Except Articles and Minor Prepositions (unless they are the first word of the title or first word after a colon  Mind Wide Open: The Neuroscience of Everyday Life TITLES

7  When incorporating research, APA says verbs should be written in past tense  Douglas Smith, president of Blockbuster video, reported, “  The research suggested, “  Joe Quesada, editor in chief at Marvel Comics, wrote, “  If this sounds completely natural to you, it’s worth pointing out that MLA uses present tense verbs:  The research suggests, “ STYLE NOTES

8  Author  Title of book or article  Title of Journal or magazine that article is in  Publishing City  Name of Publisher  Volume and Issue # (for journals)  Year of publication  Page numbers of article  Director  Translator NEEDED INFO

9  All citation formats operate in a two step process  In-text citations: parenthetical information inside the body of the essay/report itself that leads the reader to the  Reference page: which contains the entirety of each source’s publication info  Where MLA, APA, Chicago, etc. differ is how the knit- picky bibliographic information should be written and what info goes in the in-text citations TWO PARTS

10  Always make it clear who is saying what quote, who they are, and use a parenthetical immediately after the name or organization to show when it was published/said  Douglas Smith (2001), president of Blockbuster video, reported, “The retail video store no longer seems like our most viable direction of business.”  The Comics Chronicles (2011) reported that Diamond Comics distributor saw a 4.57% growth in comic shop orders for the year 2011.  Note: the second example is a paraphrase not a direct quote, so while the parenthetical is needed, quotation marks obviously aren’t ATTRIBUTION AND YEAR OF INFORMATION

11  If the quote or paraphrase came from a source with page numbers (this does not include web sites) then the page # of the info must come at the end of the sentence in a second parenthetical.  Hambling (2004) reported that “comic book buyers are no longer kids and haven’t been for a long time. The average age of comic buyers skews into the mid-30s” (p. 45).  The page number is fronted with a p.  The punctuation comes out of the quote and is placed at the end of the parenthetical citation  Do not double up punctuation (i.e., don’t have a period before the closing “ and after the parenthetical. Just one. PAGE NUMBERS

12  If the quote is 40 words or more, put the quote in a free standing block of text with no quotation marks. LONG QUOTATIONS

13  Upon first reference use a signal phrase with all the last names  Research by Smith and Jones (2014) suggested, “ “  Research by Smith, Jones, Hambling, Johnson, Lee, and Pepper (2014) suggested, “ “  When there are three or more authors, all subsequent mentions can use the et al  Research by Smith et al (2014) suggested, “ “ MULTIPLE AUTHORS

14  Hambling (n.d.), in his article “Comic Audience Has Changed,” reported that “comic book buyers are no longer kids and haven’t been for a long time. The average age of comic buyers skews into the mid-30s” (Demographics section, para. 5).  The n.d. stands for “no date.” It must be there. If there is a date, cite as normal.  If the web text has heading sections, place the section title in the end parenthetical along with the paragraph #)  If no author is given, make sure to place the title and date in the end parenthetical.  Research has shown that giving the paragraph number in APA is stupid (“Why APA is Sometimes Stupid,” 2012). WEB TEXTS

15  Is always a brand new page- even if there is space to start it at the end of your final paragraph  The word References should be centered at the top of the page  List is alphabetized by author’s last name, or first letter of organization name, or first letter of title when there is no author  First line of entry is flush left with margin. Subsequent lines of same entry are indented.  REFERENCES PAGE


17  Botzakis, S. (2009). Adult fans of comic books: What they get out of reading them. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 53(1), 50-59.  Last name, first initial  Year  Title of Article with only first word capitalized  Title of Journal in Italics with every word capitalized  Volume and issue number written as #(#)  Page spread of article SCHOLARLY JOURNALS (ONE AUTHOR)

18  Botzakis, S., Hambling, D., & Jones, R. (2009). Adult fans of comic books: What they get out of reading them. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. 53(1), 50-59.  Organization are written similarly:  American Neuroscience Organization (2010). SCHOLARLY JOURNALS (MULTIPLE AUTHORS)

19  Elements  Author  Publication Date/or Last Update  Web Page Title and Larger Site Title  URL  Peterson, K. (2012). “More blockbuster stores closing.” MSN Money. Retrieved from stocks/post.aspx?post=e4ad0423-bd75-4a2c-a689- 2837c7ae6729 stocks/post.aspx?post=e4ad0423-bd75-4a2c-a689- 2837c7ae6729  Only first initials of first names  Page title in quotations/Larger site in italics  Retrieved from must be written before URL  No date? Use n.d.  No author? Write Anonymous in author’s place WEBSITES

20  In an essay on urban legends, Jan Harold Brunvand (1999) notes that "some individuals make a point of learning every recent rumor or tale... and in a short time a lively exchange of details occurs" (p. 78).  Show you removed words from the original quote with a... OMITTING WORDS

21  Jan Harold Brunvand (1999), in an essay on urban legends, states: "some individuals [who retell urban legends] make a point of learning every rumor or tale" (p. 78).  Place added words in brackets to show that they are yours  Done to provide context ADDING WORDS

22  Quotation Marks  Forces the search to find words in that exact order only  Helps narrow down search  “comic book shops”  “record industry sales”  “video rental stores closing” BOOLEAN LOGIC

23  AND  Narrows down search by making sure only these keywords appear  Pairs well with quotation marks  “comic book shops” and “sales figures”  “record industry” and piracy  “video rental stores” and netflix BOOLEAN LOGIC

24  OR  Finds hits when terms have similar terms that are used interchangeably  “comic books” or “graphic novels”  “record industry trouble” or “music industry trouble” BOOLEAN LOGIC

25  NOT  Used to filter out hits that may be related but are not what you’re looking for  Works well in library searches; not so much in Google  “comic book stores” not (collecting or selling)  “dvd sales” not “blu ray sales” BOOLEAN LOGIC

26  Academic Search Premiere  JSTOR  Project Muse  LexisNexis  Business Source Premiere  ERIC SCHOLARLY DATABASES

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