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Relative Index Headings in the Dewey Decimal Classification Taxonomy Tuesday July 22, 2008 Rebecca Green Assistant Editor, DDC.

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Presentation on theme: "Relative Index Headings in the Dewey Decimal Classification Taxonomy Tuesday July 22, 2008 Rebecca Green Assistant Editor, DDC."— Presentation transcript:

1 Relative Index Headings in the Dewey Decimal Classification Taxonomy Tuesday July 22, 2008 Rebecca Green Assistant Editor, DDC

2 Outline Introduction/review Taxonomic structure of DDC schedules Role of Relative Index as a controlled vocabulary Project to clarify nature of relationship of Relative Index terms to classes they index

3 Parts of the DDC Schedules > 26,000 Tables 1-6> 9,000 Manual ca. 350 Relative Index> 72,000

4 Disciplinary basis (1) DDC is arranged by discipline Any given subject may be treated in more than one discipline and thus may appear in more than one place in DDC.

5 Disciplinary basis (2) DDC main classes 000 Computer science, information & general works 100 Philosophy & psychology 200 Religion 300 Social sciences 400 Language 500 Science 600 Technology 700 Arts & recreation 800 Literature 900 History & geography

6 Hierarchy Expressed through notation Expressed through structure

7 Notational hierarchy (1) Expressed by length of notation Any given subject usually subordinate to topic whose notation is one digit shorter

8 Notational hierarchy (2) Children—psychology 100 Philosophy, parapsychology and occultism, psychology 150 Psychology 155 Differential and developmental psychology Child psychology

9 Structural hierarchy (1) Every subject subordinate to (i.e., part of) all the broader subjects above it Hierarchical force: whatever is true of the whole is true of the parts

10 Drawing children Drawing human figures Children Thus, drawing children classed in Structural hierarchy (2)

11 Structural and notational hierarchy For most part structural and notational hierarchies coincide Among exceptions: Centered entries See references

12 Centered entries Casualty insurance > Casualty insurance Class comprehensive works in Liability insurance Glass insurance Insurance against industrial casualties (accidents) Other casualty insurance

13 See references Used to indicate that, although subject is logically part of hierarchy where reference appears, it is classed elsewhere 570 Life sciences Biology For paleontology, see 560; for plants, see 580; for animals, see 590; for medical sciences, see 610

14 Tools for locating classes in taxonomy Hierarchical organization Summaries Class elsewhere notes See and See also references Relative Index

15 Class-elsewhere notes 552 Petrology Class structural geology in Uses of coal Class a specific use with the use, e.g., metallurgical use

16 See references Other labor measures Class here comprehensive works on labor violence For violence in strikes, see

17 See-also references Child abuse See also for incest; also for pornography

18 Relative Index (1) Clothing391 arts customs 391 home sewing646.4 product safety psychological influence155.95

19 Relative Index (2) Internet information systems sociology see also Computer communications see also Manual at vs , ,

20 Relative Index (3) Significant effort goes into: Maintaining consistency among headings and subheadings Maintaining relationships among Relative Index terms Mapping Relative Index terms to Schedule and Table classes

21 Project Clarify nature of relationship of Relative Index terms to classes they index

22 DDC classes Class as gathering point for set of topics Caption Including concepts Class here concepts

23 Example class Fencing Including bojutsu, kendo Class here sword fighting

24 Topics in classes (1) Some topics approximate the whole of the meaning of the class Some topics are in standing room in the class

25 Topics in classes (2) Approximating the whole vs. standing room: Standard subdivisions can only be added for topics that approximate the whole of the class, not for those in standing room Future expansion anticipated for topics in standing room, not for those that approximate the whole Topics in class-here notes approximate the whole of the class; topics in including notes are in standing room

26 Class-here notes (1) Class-here notes List major subjects included in a class List subjects that approximate the whole of the class, even if broader or narrower than the caption; also used to indicate comprehensive or interdisciplinary numbers Have hierarchical force Standard subdivisions can be added; other number-building techniques allowed

27 Class-here notes (2) Class-here notes—examples Biological resources Class here biodiversity, biosphere T2—71133 Greater Vancouver Regional District Class here Vancouver

28 DDC structure Class-here notes—examples—cont Institutions pertaining to death Class here interdisciplinary works on death Burglary, robbery, theft insurance Class here comprehensive works on crime insurance Class-here notes (3)

29 Including notes (1) Including notes List subjects in standing room at a number Do not have hierarchical force Standard subdivisions cannot be added Other number-building techniques not allowed

30 Including notes—example Seashore ecology Including ecology of rock pools, sea caves, tidal flats, tide pools Note: Standard subdivisions can be added for seashore ecology, but not for, e.g., ecology of tide pools. Including notes (2)

31 Relative Index terms and class topics Explicitly: Relative Index terms index class as whole Implicitly: Relative Index terms associated with specific topics in class Specific associations not recorded Don’t know if Relative Index term topic approximates the whole of the class or is in standing room there Project attempts to make this designation automatically

32 Motivation Correct decision on addition of standard subdivisions Maintenance of scheme: if topic moves to another class, associated Relative Index term should, too Support automated reasoning in scheme, e.g., discover parallelisms in scheme

33 Difficulties Identification of topics Topics in caption Some approximate whole Some in standing room Paraphrase relationship between topics in schedules and Relative Index terms (morphological, syntactic, semantic)

34 Captions Number of topics in caption Single-topic No subclasses Generalization of subclasses Multitopic Dual headings Caption as series Parentheticals in captions

35 Example Divinatory arts Including fortune-telling by bones, dice, pendulum Relative Index terms: Bones—divination Dice—divination Pendulums—divination

36 Example—Cont Divinatory arts Class here... occult methods of foretelling the future Relative Index terms: Forecasting—occultism Predictions—occultism Prophecies—occultism

37 Two-phase approach In schedules Isolate topics Determine if topics approximate whole of class (AW) or are in standing room (SR) Match Relative Index terms to schedule topics

38 Topic isolation Sign languages used primarily for purposes other than communication of deaf people Systems programs Operating systems Satellites and rings; eclipses, transits, occultations Religious experience, life, practice [can’t parse reliably]

39 Approximates-the-whole topics Topic in single topic caption All topics in class-here note Topic in multitopic caption, with note that standard subdivisions are added for: Any and all topics in heading Either or both topics in heading The specific topic alone

40 Standing room topics All topics in including notes Topic in multitopic caption, with note for adding standard subdivisions, not meeting criteria for approximating the whole Topic in multitopic caption, without note for adding standard subdivisions, that matches topic in subordinate caption

41 Standard subdivisions note 749 Furniture and accessories Standard subdivisions are added for furniture and accessories together, for furniture alone

42 Matching RI terms to topics: EXACT match Linguistic philosophies Including ordinary language philosophy RI: Ordinary language philosophy (SR)

43 Matching RI terms to topics: EXACT match 121 Epistemology (Theory of knowledge) Certainty and probability Standard subdivisions are added for either or both topics in heading RI: Probabilities—epistemology (AW)

44 Matching RI terms to topics: IN match 620 Engineering Irrigation Class here construction and use of irrigation canals RI: Irrigation canals — engineering (AW)

45 Matching RI terms to topics: KEYWORD match *Activities and services Including Morse and other code telegraphy, printing telegraphy; stock tickers, teletype, telex; comprehensive works on facsimile transmission RI: Morse code telegraphy (SR)

46 Matching RI terms to topics: KEYWORD match *Satellite communication RI: Communications satellites (AW) *Radiobroadcasting Class here public broadcasting (noncommercial broadcasting), public aspects of amateur radio, interdisciplinary works on radiobroadcasting and television broadcasting RI: Noncommercial radio (AW)

47 Matching RI terms to topics: PARTIAL (50%+) match 748 Glass Methods of decoration RI: Decorative treatment—glass (AW)

48 Results EXACTINKEYWORDPARTIAL Approximates whole (24.4%) 4209 (9.0%) 1241 (2.7%) 5189 (11.2%) Standing room 3116 (6.7%) 4064 (8.7%) 952 (2.0%) 1513 (3.3%) Unknown status 1042 (2.2%) 1479 (3.2%) 584 (1.3%) 1091 (2.3%)

49 Future work (1) Observe hierarchical force 302Social interaction Class here... social psychology Content Including gossip, rumor RI: Rumor—social psychology

50 Future work (2) Don’t require match on Relative Index qualifier Systems of French origin Including Babouvism, Icarianism RI: Babouvism (Socialist school)

51 Future work (3) Use WordNet (WN) synonymy relationships Marriage and marital status Standard subdivisions are added for either or both topics in heading Class here... interdisciplinary works on marriage, on marriage status RI: Matrimony WN synset: marriage, matrimony,... wedlock

52 Future work (4) Locally reverse treatment of main heading and subheading 220The Bible 224 Prophetic books of Old Testament Isaiah (Isaias) RI: Bible. O.T.--Isaiah

53 Future work (5) Include additional morphological relationships Confucian philosophy Including Neo-Confucian philosophy Class here the Four Books of Confucius; Confucianism RI: Neo-Confucianism

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