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THOMAS JEFFERSON: STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST? (AND MAIN EVENTS OF HIS PRESIDENCY) EUGENIA LANGAN (with thanks to Tony Miller) MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL.

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Presentation on theme: "THOMAS JEFFERSON: STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST? (AND MAIN EVENTS OF HIS PRESIDENCY) EUGENIA LANGAN (with thanks to Tony Miller) MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL."— Presentation transcript:

1 THOMAS JEFFERSON: STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST? (AND MAIN EVENTS OF HIS PRESIDENCY) EUGENIA LANGAN (with thanks to Tony Miller) MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

2 ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS TODAY: WHAT WERE THE MAIN EVENTS OF THOMAS JEFFERSON’S PRESIDENCY? WAS HE A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST? BROAD (LONG-TERM): HOW AND WHEN DID A U.S. IDENTITY (NATIONALISM) ARISE? WHAT CAUSED THE CIVIL WAR?

3 BACKGROUND/ REVIEW  JEFFERSON FOUNDED THE DEMOCRATIC- REPUBLICAN (“DR”) PARTY  AS SECRETARY OF STATES FOR GEORGE WASHINGTON, HE ADVOCATED STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF THE CONSTITUTION (OPINION ON THE CONSTITUTIONALITY OF THE BANK)  AS VICE PRESIDENT UNDER JOHN ADAMS, JEFFERSON ADVOCATED STRICT CONSTRUCTION AND STATE SOVEREIGNTY (KENTUCKY RESOLVES)

4  IN THE ELECTION OF 1800, JEFFERSON AND BURR TIED IN THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE  ELECTION WENT TO HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES – 36 BALLOTS TO BREAK TIE HAMILTON AND BURR ENEMIES – HAMILTON WORKED BEHIND SCENES TO GET HOUSE MEMBERS TO VOTE FOR JEFFERSON HAMILTON AND BURR ENEMIES – HAMILTON WORKED BEHIND SCENES TO GET HOUSE MEMBERS TO VOTE FOR JEFFERSON -

5 THE RESULT: PRESIDENT JEFFERSON AND VICE PRESIDENT BURR --BOTH DR, BUT BITTER ENEMIES AMONG OTHER THINGS, BURR WASN’T SUPPOSED TO CHALLENGE JEFFERSON FOR THE PRESIDENCY IN 1800

6  RESULT: 12 TH AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION, PASSED BY CONGRESS 1803, RATIFED 1804: ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTES SEPARATELY FOR PRESIDENT AND VICE PRESIDENT PRACTICAL EFFECT: PRESIDENTIAL AND VICE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES FROM SAME PARTY RUN ON SINGLE TICKET – NO MORE PRES. AND VP FROM DIFFERENT PARTIES PRACTICAL EFFECT: PRESIDENTIAL AND VICE PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES FROM SAME PARTY RUN ON SINGLE TICKET – NO MORE PRES. AND VP FROM DIFFERENT PARTIES

7 THOMAS JEFFERSON – “THE SAGE OF MONTICELLO JEFFERSON, BY REMBRANDT PEALE (1800) MONTICELLO, CHARLOTTESVILLE, VA -- JEFFERSON DESIGNED IT AT A STATE DINNER FOR NOBEL PRIZE WINNERS, PRESIDENT KENNEDY CALLED THEM “THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY COLLECTION OF TALENT, OF HUMAN KNOWLEDGE, THAT HAS EVER BEEN GATHERED TOGETHER AT THE WHITE HOUSE, WITH THE POSSIBLE EXCEPTION OF WHEN THOMAS JEFFERSON DINED ALONE.”

8 JEFFERSON DESIGNED THE ORIGINAL BUILDINGS AT U. VA.

9  JEFFERSON ALSO ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM – SEE “DEFENESE OF SUPERIORITY” P. 170 TXTBK. ENTRANCE HALL AT MONTICELLO – REFLECTS J’S INTENSE INTEREST IN FAUNA OF U.S.

10 JEFFERSON ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHE – WROTE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (BUT A SLAVEOWNER – AND WELL AWARE OF THE CONTRADICTION!)  ENLIGHTENMENT PHILOSOPHE – WROTE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (BUT A SLAVEOWNER – AND WELL AWARE OF THE CONTRADICTION!)  RENAISSANCE MAN: POLITICAL PHILOSOPHER, FOUNDED UNIVERSITY, LAWYER, ARCHITECT, NATURAL SCIENTIST  GOVERNOR, CONGRESSMAN, MINISTER TO FRANCE, SECRETARY OF STATE, VP STATUE OF JEFFERSON AT JEFFERSON MEMORIAL  AND A POLITICIAN!

11 JEFFERSON’S POLITICAL PRINCIPLES AS EXPRESSED IN HIS FIRST INAUGUARAL ADDRESS REJECTED IDEA OF A POLITICAL ELITE. REJECTED IDEA OF A POLITICAL ELITE. BACKBONE OF DEMOCRACY = FREE, INDEPENDENT FARMER. BACKBONE OF DEMOCRACY = FREE, INDEPENDENT FARMER. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE WITHOUT REGARD TO PROPERTY OWNERSHIP. UNIVERSAL SUFFRAGE WITHOUT REGARD TO PROPERTY OWNERSHIP. SMALL GOVERNMENT—GOVERNS BEST WHEN IT GOVERNS LEAST. SMALL GOVERNMENT—GOVERNS BEST WHEN IT GOVERNS LEAST. STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF THE CONSTITUTION STRICT CONSTRUCTION OF THE CONSTITUTION.

12 JEFFERSON’S FIRST PRIORITY -- UNDUE FEDERALIST “ABUSES”  PARDONED THOSE CONVICTED UNDER THE ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS  PUSHED NEW NATURALIZATION LAW (1802) THAT REDUCED RESIDENCE REQUIREMENT BACK TO FIVE YEARS.  REPEALED THE EXCISE TAX—COST US 1 MILL. PER YEAR IN LOST REVENUE.  REDUCED THE NATIONAL DEBT  EFFECT ON CORE OF HAMILTON’S FINANCIAL PROGRAM AND NATIONAL ECONOMY?

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14  THE RELUCTANT WARRIOR – FIRST BARBARY WAR (1801 – 05)  JEFFERSON – PACIFICIST AND ANTI- ENTANGLEMENT -- ARGUED THAT U.S. SHOULD NOT HAVE STANDING ARMY AND WANTED TO REDUCED NAVAL FLEET  BUT HE HAD NO CHOICE ABOUT BARBARY PIRATES, POLITICALLY OR PRACTICALLY: 1. HAD LED THE “MILLIONS FOR DEFENSE, NOT ON CENT FOR TRIBUTE” CAMPAIGN” DURING XYZ AFFAIR 2. U.S. WAS PAYING ABOUT ≈ 20% OF ITS ANNUAL $$ IN TRIBUTE AND RANSOMS TO BARBARY PIRATES

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16  BASHAW OF TRIPOLI DEMANDED $250,000 IN 1801, JEFFERSON SAID NO  TRIPOLI DECLARED WAR ON U.S.  1802 – CONGRESS AUTHORIZED JEFFERSON TO SEND NAVY TO TRIPOLI  IT WAS TOUCH AND GO – BUT U.S. WON (TOOK BOTH DECATUR’S ATTACK ON TRIPOLI HARBOR AND EATON’S LAND CAMPAIGN/ BATTLE OF DERNA)  FIRST FOREIGN WAR WON BY U.S.!

17 U.S.S. PHILADELPHIA (CAPTURED) AGROUND IN TRIPOLI HARBOR STEPHEN DECATUR – FIRST U.S. HERO SINCE REVOLUTION – HE GOT ALL THE CREDIT  WILLIAM EATON – DECATUR COULDN’T HAVE DONE IT WITHOUT EATON’S LAND CAMPAIGN – AND THE ARAB AND GREEK TROOPS WHO FOUGHT WITH EATON

18 THE LOUISIANA GODSEND  BACKGROUND:  TREATY OF PARIS (1763) – FRANCE CEDED LOUISIANA TO SPAIN  1800 – NAPOLEON FORCED SPAIN TO CEDED LOUISIANA TERRITORY TO FRANCE – SECRET PACT  WHY DID FRANCE WANT IT? CONTROL OF MISSISSIPPI, ALSO MAJOR PORT (FOR SUGAR, COFFEE FROM DOMINICA) CONTROL OF MISSISSIPPI, ALSO MAJOR PORT (FOR SUGAR, COFFEE FROM DOMINICA)  1802 – SPAIN (ACTING FOR FRANCE) WITHDREW RIGHT OF DEPOSIT AT NEW ORLEANS WESTERN FARMERS’ REACTIONS? JEFFERSON’S OPTIONS? WESTERN FARMERS’ REACTIONS? JEFFERSON’S OPTIONS? GET IT BACK – BUT U.S. COULD NOT HAVE FOUGHT WAR W/NAPOLEON, SO NEGOTIATE GET IT BACK – BUT U.S. COULD NOT HAVE FOUGHT WAR W/NAPOLEON, SO NEGOTIATE

19  JEFFERSON SENT JAMES MONROE (L) AND ROBERT LIVINSGTON (R) TO PARIS TO BUY NEW ORLEANS FOR $10 MILLION  BEFORE MONROE ARRIVED, NAPOLEON OFFERS TO SELL THE ENTIRE TERRITORY FOR $ 15 MILLION ( ≈ 3 CENTS/ACRE) -- WHY? HAITIAN REVOLUTION + HE WAS PREPARING FOR ANOTHER WAR WITH ENGLAND HAITIAN REVOLUTION + HE WAS PREPARING FOR ANOTHER WAR WITH ENGLAND

20  HAITIAN REVOLUTION, LED BY TOUSSAINT L’OUVERTURE (1799 – 1805) – ONLY SUCCESSFUL SLAVE REBELLION IN AMERICAS (WITH HELP OF “MOSQUITO ARMY”)  BASED ON U.S. DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE  WAS U.S. HAPPY ABOUT IT? OF COURSE NOT! NOBODY WANTED SLAVE REBELLIONS HERE! OF COURSE NOT! NOBODY WANTED SLAVE REBELLIONS HERE!

21  LIVINGSTON IMMEDIATELY ACCEPTED NAPOLEON’S OFFER WITHOUT CHECKING W/ JEFFERSON  TREATY FOR LOUISIANA PURCHASE SIGNED APRIL, 1803 – LIVINGSTON SAID, “FROM THIS DAY THE UNITED STATES TAKE THEIR PLACE AMONG THE POWERS OF THE FIRST RANK.“

22  JEFFERSON ANNOUNCED IT TO U.S. ON JULY 4, 1803  WHAT’S THE PROBLEM? CONSTITUTION DOESN’T EXPRESSLY AUTHORIZE U.S. TO BUY LAND – A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST WOULD SAY “NO!” CONSTITUTION DOESN’T EXPRESSLY AUTHORIZE U.S. TO BUY LAND – A STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST WOULD SAY “NO!” PURCHASE WILL MAKE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MUCH MORE POWERFUL – A STATES’ RIGHTS GUY WOULD SAY “NO” PURCHASE WILL MAKE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT MUCH MORE POWERFUL – A STATES’ RIGHTS GUY WOULD SAY “NO”

23  BUT JEFFERSON SAID YES! (DO THE DBQ HW AND FIND OUT WHAT HIS ARGUMENT WAS)  OF COURSE, FEDERALISTS OPPOSE THE PURCHASE – CLAIM IT’S UNCONSTITUTIONAL (IRONY) – THEY FAVOR BRITAIN  BUT SENATE CONFIRMED TREATY OCTOBER 1803  HANDOVER AT CABILDO IN NEW ORLEANS, DECEMBER 20, 1803

24 THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE Terr. West of Mississippi in Miss. and Mo. River watershed ET VOILÁ! THE U.S. MORE THAN DOUBLES IN SIZE!

25 T THIS ACCESSION OF TERRITORY AFFIRMS FOREVER THE POWER OF THE UNITED STATES, AND I HAVE GIVEN ENGLAND A MARITIME RIVAL WHO SOONER OR LATER WILL HUMBLE HER PRIDE.“

26 LOUISIANA IN THE LONG VIEW  ONE OF THE MOST IMPORTANT EVENTS IN US HISTORY.  DOUBLED THE SIZE OF COUNTRY AND GAVE US VERY FERTILE LAND AND VAST MINERAL RESOURCES  INCREASED THE MOMENTUM OF WESTWARD EXPANSION.  LED TO THE FEELING THAT U.S. HAD UNLIMITED FRONTIER  PLANTED THE SEEDS OF MANIFEST DESTINY—IDEA THAT AMERICA DESTINED TO CONTROL ENTIRE CONTINENT.

27  THE CORPS OF DISCOVERY --LEWIS AND CLARK EXPEDITION (1804 – 06) – TO MAP LOUISIANA TERRITORY AND FIND NORTHWEST PASSAGE

28 1814 MAP OF LEWIS & CLARK’S EXPEDITION

29 MERIWETHER LEWIS AND WILLIAM CLARK

30 THERE ARE, OF COURSE, NO PORTRAITS OF SACAGAWEA, THE EXPEDITION’S SHOSHONE GUIDE ALL ALONG JOURNEY, INDIANS WELCOMED AND HELPED LEWIS AND CLARK

31  DIRTY POLITICS – THE IMPEACHMENT OF SUPREME COURT JUSTICE SAMUEL CHASE  CHASE – SIGNED DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE, SERVED IN CONTINENTAL CONGRESS, APPOINTED TO COURT BY WASHINGTON  HE WAS A FEDERALIST  MIDNIGHT JUDICIAL APPOINTMENTS  JEFFERSON WANTED TO REDUCE FEDERALIST POWER ON COURTS, ORDERED CHASE IMPEACHED (FOR BAD DECISIONS)  HOUSE IMPEACHED, SENATE ACQUITTED (BURR PRESIDED) – ESTABLISHED THAT JUDGES CAN’T BE IMPEACHED FOR THEIR DECISIONS

32 HAMILTON-BURR DUEL, WEEHAWKEN, N.J. (1804)  H AND B HATED EACH OTHER  REASONS FOR DUEL FLIMSY – AN ASSOCIATE OF HAMILTON’S WROTE LETTER REPEATING RUMOR OF BURR CONSPIRACY FOR SECESSION OF NEW ENGLAND  BURR KILLED HAMILTON  ONLY TIME VICE PRESIDENT SHOT SOMEONE ELSE IN DUEL (NOW THEY DO IT IN HUNTING ACCIDENTS)  DISCREDITS BURR

33 CANDIDATES P/ VPPARTYELECTORAL VOTES % ELECTORAL % POPULAR THOMAS JEFFERSON GEORGE CLINTON DR16292% 72.8% * CHARLES PINCKNEY RUFUS KING FED148%27.2% ELECTION OF STATES * IN CONN., DEL., GA., N.Y., S.C. & VT., ELECTORS WERE STILL APPOINTED BY STATE LEGISLATURES

34 ELECTION OF 1804

35 DIRTY POLITICS: THE TREASON TRIAL OF AARON BURR (1807)  DURING THE POLITICAL DISPUTE OVER LA. PURCHASE, RUMOR = BURR PLANNING TO LEAD SECESSION OF NEW ENGLAND  1805 – BURR PLANNED TO LEAD FILIBUSTER INTO MEXICO (PREDECESSOR OF MEXICAN WAR 1847!) – PROBABLY VIOLATED NEUTRALITY ACT OF 1794  LED TO RUMOR – BURR PLANNING TO TAKE OVER WESTERN U.S. AND ESTABLISH MONARCHY  JEFFERSON HAD HIM TRIED FOR TREASON – JOHN MARSHALL ACQUITTED BURR

36  THE MAIN CHALLENGE OF JEFFERSON’S SECOND ADMINISTRATION: NAPOLEONIC WARS AND THE IMPOSSIBLE EFFORT AT NEUTRALITY (AGAIN)

37  BRITAIN’S ORDERS IN COUNCIL, BAN ON TRADE WITH FRANCE  AND BRITAIN DIDN’T YET RECOGNIZE U.S. INDEPENDENCE FULLY   INCREASED SEIZURES OF U.S. MERCHANTMEN – OVER 6,000 “U.S.” SEAMEN IMPRESSED (BUT SOME WERE BRITISH SUBJECTS, INCLUDING ROYAL NAVY DESERTERS)  NAPOLEON RETALIATED W/ EDICT OF MILAN (1807): ALL NEUTRAL SHIPS IN BRITISH PORTS, AND ANY SEARCHED BY ROYAL NAVY ON HIGH SEAS, SUBJECT TO SEIZURE BY FRENCH NAVY – WHAT “NEUTRAL” DID HE MEAN? U.S. U.S.

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39  CHESAPEAKE – LEOPARD AFFAIR (1807)  OFF COAST OF NORFOLK, VA. HMS LEOPARD FIRED ON, BOARDED U.S.S. CHESAPEAKE  3 KILLED, 4 DESERTERS FROM ROYAL NAVY SEIZED (3 WERE U.S. CITIZENS)

40  NATIONAL OUTRAGE AND HONOR REQUIRED U.S. TO DO SOMETHING  PROS AND CONS OF US OPTIONS? WAR WITH BRITAIN? NOT AN OPTION FOR JEFFERSON. NEGOTIATIONS? DIDN’T WORK! WAR WITH BRITAIN? NOT AN OPTION FOR JEFFERSON. NEGOTIATIONS? DIDN’T WORK!  WHAT DID JEFFERSON DO? GOT EMBARGO ACT PASSED (1807) GOT EMBARGO ACT PASSED (1807) NO U.S. IMPORTS OR EXPORTS NO U.S. IMPORTS OR EXPORTS ASSUMED THIS WOULD QUICKLY BRING ENGLAND AND FRANCE AROUND. ASSUMED THIS WOULD QUICKLY BRING ENGLAND AND FRANCE AROUND. STRICT CONSTRUCTIONIST?  WHO WOULD BE OPPOSED TO EMBARGO ACT? EVERYONE! EVEN REVIVED THE FEDERALIST PARTY (TEMPORARILY)

41 FROM A FEDERALIST CIRCULAR, 1808: “LET EVERY MAN WHO HOLDS THE CAUSE OF LIBERTY DEAR TO HIM, STRETCH OUT HIS HANDS AND PUT THIS ACCURSED THING, THIS EMBARGO, FROM HIM. BE RESOLUTE, ACT LIKE SONS OF LIBERTY, OR GOD, AND YOUR COUNTRY; NERVE YOUR ARM WITH VENGEANCE AGAINST THE DESPOT WHO WOULD WREST THE INESTIMABLE GERM OF YOUR INDEPENDENCE FROM YOU – AND YOU SHALL BE CONQUERORS!”

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43  CONSEQUENCES OF EMBARGO ACT? WRECKED U.S. ECONOMY WRECKED U.S. ECONOMY THREE TIMES MORE COSTLY THAT WAR WOULD HAVE BEEN. THREE TIMES MORE COSTLY THAT WAR WOULD HAVE BEEN. RUINED U.S. MERCHANT MARINE, NEW ENGLAND SHIPYARDS, IMPORT-EXPORT TRADE RUINED U.S. MERCHANT MARINE, NEW ENGLAND SHIPYARDS, IMPORT-EXPORT TRADE  ULTIMATELY DID HELP NEW ENGLAND FACTORIES, LED TO INCREASED INDUSTRIALIZATION –ALMOST NO BRITISH MFGR. IMPORTS (THINGS LIKE GLASS, LEAD, PAINT, STEEL, NOT ONLY LUXURY GOOD) HURT SOUTH WORSE – PURE EXPORT ECONOMY HURT SOUTH WORSE – PURE EXPORT ECONOMY ALSO HURT WESTERN FARMERS - NO GRAIN EXPORTS ALSO HURT WESTERN FARMERS - NO GRAIN EXPORTS

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45  UNSUCCESSFUL (“SECRET”) 1806 NEGOTIATIONS TO BUY WEST FLORIDA FROM FRANCE FOR $2 MILLION – ALSO FODDER FOR FEDERALISTS

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47  THE NON-INTERCOURSE ACT (1809) – PASSED 4 DAYS BEFORE JEFFERSON LEFT OFFICE  REPEALED EMBARGO ACT, IMPOSED EMBARGO ONLY ON AMERICAN SHIPS BOUND FOR BRITISH AND FRENCH FORTS  NEITHER EMBARGO ACT NOR NON-INTERCOURSE ACT GOT BRITAIN OR FRANCE TO LEAVE U.S. SHIPS ALONE –  BUT BOTH STIMULATED ECONOMY IN THE LONG RUN BY LEADING TO INCREASED INDUSTRIALIZATION  DESPITE EMBARGO ACT, JEFFERSON STILL POPULAR – D-R PARTY MORE POPULAR THAN FED.

48 CANDIDATES P/ VPPARTYELECTORAL VOTES % ELECTORAL % POPULAR JAMES MADISON GEORGE CLINTON DR % * CHARLES PINCKNEY RUFUS KING FED % GEORGE CLINTON JAMES MONROE DR63%0 _________________ _________________ UNPLEDGED ELECTORS DR______0_______NA0_______NA2.5%__________0.4% ELECTION OF STATES – ONE KY ELECTOR DIDN’T VOTE * IN CONN., DEL., GA., N.Y., S.C. & VT., ELECTORS WERE STILL APPOINTED BY STATE LEGISLATURES

49 FEDERALIST PARTY IS ON THE WAY OUT!


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