Presentation on theme: "The United Kingdom Minorities. Introduction and Figures 7.5% of people living in UK were born abroad. the picture shows the concentration of people born."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction and Figures 7.5% of people living in UK were born abroad. the picture shows the concentration of people born abroad throughout UK. High concentrations in S. East and main cities (e.g. London, Birmingham, Edinburgh, and Liverpool. Map on the right shows countries as if areas with equal population were the same size.
Introduction and Figures the picture shows the % change in number of people born abroad throughout UK. Again, the main cities see the largest % of change, with more and more people moving there. Between 1991 and 2001, one half of Britain’s Population growth was due to immigration!
Where People are From Main groups of minorities in the UK: - the Black communities - the Asian communities
The Black Communities There are three groups with which people associate themselves: – Black Caribbean – Black African – Black Other (they do not consider themselves to have roots either in the Caribbean or in Africa. They could have links to other countries, be of mixed race, or consider themselves Black British.)
Black Caribbean By far the most numerous and widespread of all British people with black ethnic origin. Major communities include West Midlands, Yorkshire, and Humberside. 53.7% of Black Caribbean community lives in London. Large scale immigration from the West Indies towards the end of the 1940’s when urban area jobs attracted the most number of people – explains the trend of high immigration into big cities.
Black Africans Of all the different ethnic minority groups, Black Africans have the highest concentration in London. 78% of Black Africans live in London Large communities also exist in Cardiff, Liverpool, Manchester, Oxford, and Cambridge.
Black Other This group is much more evenly distributed around the UK than the other two groups. Although again, the large cities have the highest concentration of this group.
Specific Examples: Stephen Lawrence Case Stephen was attacked and murdered by 6 to 8 members of a racist gang in Eltham, South East London, on April 22, 1993. While various men were convicted of charges, all suspects were eventually released from jail and let free. People questioned the way police handled the case; - friend Duwayne Brooks, who was present at the murder, is now suing police because they did not take his case seriously and did not treat him as a victim; - instead they treated him as a suspect and was later victimized by the police. and later saying that they treated main witnesses poorly and did not This inquiry into the police's handling of the case led directly to new anti- discrimination legislation passed in 2000.
Follow Up Hate Crimes following Lawrence Murder: A boy who portrayed Stephen Lawrence in a movie was later stabbed by gang of white men. (Feb. 2002) Two charged over Lawrence memorial damage. (May 2002) Two black men beaten mile away from Lawrence murder site. (Nov. 2002)
Asian Communities Dimsum- leading Chinese media group Min Quan – new anti-racism pressure group
Case in-study Rumor of foot-and-mouth disease Said that Asian restaurants were buying diseased meat and it ruined restaurants’ business Result: held big rally because rumor was untrue and it was major step towards acknowledging racism towards Asians.
Recent Immigration Numbers After the fall of the Iron Curtain, large numbers of people from all over immigrated to UK. Between 1998 and 2000, some 45,000 people arrived from Africa, 22,700 from the Indian sub-continent, 25,000 from Asia and almost 12,000 from the Americas. Some 125,000 people were allowed to settle in the UK in 2000.
Minorities in Government In 1987, four non-white politicians were elected at the same General Election. The first non-white members of parliament. Today there are 12 non-white MP’s (members of Parliament). However equal representation would require at least 55 black MP’s in the House of Commons.
Race Relations Act (RRA) 1965: established 1977: major changes - attempted to diminish discrimination in employment, education, accommodations and housing, and other services. - complaints: filed with attorney general
Benefits and Problems – RRA Made racism a criminal offense Allowed compensation for those discriminated against BUT… Most people did not file for complaints because of pressure from their employers and the worry of more discrimination FACT: in 1993 over 1,000 cases of employment discrimination BUT… Only 22 were compensated!
Other Legislation Commission for Racial Equality (CRE) Civil Partnership Act Human Rights Act Fair Employment Act (Northern Ireland)
BBC Race Survey In May, British Researchers interviews 1576 adults over the age of 18. They asked them questions regarding police discrimination, racism in courts and society, and the levels of tolerance in society. Interviews were conducted face-to-face and quotas were used to ensure that at least 500 interviews were conducted each with people from white, black, and Asian backgrounds.
Racism in British Society - Over half of the people in Britain believe that British society is racist. - 44% of those polled said immigration had damaged Britain over the last 50 years, although people do agree that society is more tolerant than it was 50 years ago. - Also, one in three blacks and Asians said they felt that racism had cost them the chance of a job. - People are tolerant, however, to mixed marriages, with half of the people saying they would marry someone of a different race.
Racism in British Society - 52 % of white, 53 % of blacks, and 41% of Asians said the Britain was a racist society. - Almost more alarming, 47% of whites felt that immigration had harmed society in the last 50 years! - 66% of whites claimed that immigrants do not integrate or make a positive contribution to society.
Do the Police Discriminate on the grounds of race? - One in three people feel that police officers discriminate on the grounds of race. - 33% of black respondents and 30% of Asian respondents said they have been made to feel like a criminal because of the color of their skin. - Yet, 70% of ethnic minorities and 82% of all respondents also said they felt the police do either a very good or a decent job.
Immigrants are cool!!! Gurbux Singh – Chairman of the Commission for Racial Equality (CRE): On immigrants’ positive contributions to society: "From Marks and Spencer to the Mini motorcar, some of the most famous symbols of British success have come from people who were refugees and immigrants."
Bibliography Aguiar-Holloway, Shirin. “Misery Cross the Mersey.” Black Information Link. Sep. 16, 2005. http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=9213&grp=21&cat=94 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=9213&grp=21&cat=94 Aguiar-Holloway, Shirin. “Take Your Heads out of the Mersey and Tackle Racism.” Black Information Link. http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=10214&grp=2&cat=383 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=10214&grp=2&cat=383 Ananova. “Two Charged Over Lawrence Memorial Damage.” Black Information Link. May 27, 2002 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=764&grp=14&cat=66 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=764&grp=14&cat=66 Burrell, Ian (Home Affairs). “Duwayne Brooks allowed to sue police.” Black Information Link. Mar. 27, 2002 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=559&grp=14&cat=66 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=559&grp=14&cat=66 “Born Abroad.” BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/html/overview.stmhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/uk/05/born_abroad/html/overview.stm Hattenstone, Simon. “I Just Remember Running.” Black Information Link. Feb. 21, 2002 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=354&grp=14&cat=66 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=354&grp=14&cat=66 “Race UK.” BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2002/race/http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/in_depth/uk/2002/race/ Ram, Aisha. “New Race Attack Near Murder Site.” Black Information Link. Nov. 7, 2002 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=938&grp=14&cat=66 http://www.blink.org.uk/pdescription.asp?key=938&grp=14&cat=66