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Network & Internet Basics 101 SIMS 2003 Users Conference by Steve Ryckman, SIMS Inc.

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Presentation on theme: "Network & Internet Basics 101 SIMS 2003 Users Conference by Steve Ryckman, SIMS Inc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Network & Internet Basics 101 SIMS 2003 Users Conference by Steve Ryckman, SIMS Inc.

2 Networking Overview Novell NetWare SFTIII is still the recommended network for SIMS. Novell NetWare SFTIII is still the recommended network for SIMS. SIMS “should” run on any network that supports DOS/Windows workstations. SIMS “should” run on any network that supports DOS/Windows workstations. Peer to peer networks are discouraged for all but the smallest sites. Peer to peer networks are discouraged for all but the smallest sites.

3 Novell NetWare is Dead Although Microsoft keeps spreading this rumor, it is just that – a rumor. Although Microsoft keeps spreading this rumor, it is just that – a rumor. Novell has had some hard times, just like any other company in the technology sector, but they are on the up-swing now. Novell has had some hard times, just like any other company in the technology sector, but they are on the up-swing now.

4 NetWare SFTIII is Dead SFTIII and NetWare 4.2 are far from dead. The current Novell product life- cycle chart shows products scheduled for discontinuation through 2004 and neither NetWare 4.2 or SFTIII are on it. SFTIII and NetWare 4.2 are far from dead. The current Novell product life- cycle chart shows products scheduled for discontinuation through 2004 and neither NetWare 4.2 or SFTIII are on it. Rumor is there will be a NetWare 4.2 or 4.3 with SFTIII released later this year. Rumor is there will be a NetWare 4.2 or 4.3 with SFTIII released later this year.

5 IPX is slower than TCP/IP Another rumor, in fact the opposite is true for applications like ours. TCP/IP has a much smaller frame size making it good for the internet that has a high loss of packet ratio compared to in-house networks. For networks like ours though, IPX provides much better throughput, almost twice as fast. Another rumor, in fact the opposite is true for applications like ours. TCP/IP has a much smaller frame size making it good for the internet that has a high loss of packet ratio compared to in-house networks. For networks like ours though, IPX provides much better throughput, almost twice as fast.

6 I need a GB or 10GB network False in a big way. Very few environments will get any benefit from a GB or 10GB network. Most 2ghz computers still can only move about 130mb/s to a network card. It isn’t until you go to server class machines with multiple network cards that GB or 10GB even becomes achievable. False in a big way. Very few environments will get any benefit from a GB or 10GB network. Most 2ghz computers still can only move about 130mb/s to a network card. It isn’t until you go to server class machines with multiple network cards that GB or 10GB even becomes achievable.

7 Switches are better than Hubs True. Switches provide better collision protection and less network chatter than hubs. It is generally acknowledged that a 10mb switch gets the same throughput as a 100mb hub would. True. Switches provide better collision protection and less network chatter than hubs. It is generally acknowledged that a 10mb switch gets the same throughput as a 100mb hub would. In an SFTIII environment this is even more true because 18 times per second the servers send packets to eachother. In an SFTIII environment this is even more true because 18 times per second the servers send packets to eachother.

8 .NET is the way of the future Microsoft marketing hype again..NET (pronounced DOT NET) is Microsoft’s plan to take the client/server network model onto the Internet to provide “services”. This might be great if you are running an on-line store, but it has no place in a central station and gives no benefit over current technologies that are available from other vendors. Microsoft marketing hype again..NET (pronounced DOT NET) is Microsoft’s plan to take the client/server network model onto the Internet to provide “services”. This might be great if you are running an on-line store, but it has no place in a central station and gives no benefit over current technologies that are available from other vendors.

9 What is the Internet ? Just a real big network consisting of millions of computers. Just a real big network consisting of millions of computers. It is NOT the “Web”. The “Web” and other protocols run on the Internet. It is NOT the “Web”. The “Web” and other protocols run on the Internet. Has been in use since the late 60’s but has only become popular since the “Web” made it easy to navigate it. Has been in use since the late 60’s but has only become popular since the “Web” made it easy to navigate it. ArpaNet and MilNet were original networks. ArpaNet and MilNet were original networks.

10 How big is it ? No one really knows. No one really knows. Thousands of servers, workstations and other devices are connected to it each day. Thousands of servers, workstations and other devices are connected to it each day. , Web Sites, Video feeds, Audio streams, even alarm messages are all sent across the Internet. , Web Sites, Video feeds, Audio streams, even alarm messages are all sent across the Internet.

11 The Internet Collapse hype Collapse of Internet was supposed to occur because of it’s massive growth. Collapse of Internet was supposed to occur because of it’s massive growth. Minor routing glitches occasionally but no massive failures like AOL or other much smaller networks have experienced. Minor routing glitches occasionally but no massive failures like AOL or other much smaller networks have experienced. ISP’s are spending millions setting up redundant links and peering connections with other ISP’s to ensure stability. ISP’s are spending millions setting up redundant links and peering connections with other ISP’s to ensure stability.

12 Is it safe ? Security risks are over-publicized but they do occur, just like actual burglaries vs the number of alarms received. Security risks are over-publicized but they do occur, just like actual burglaries vs the number of alarms received. Most corporate security violations are the work of disgruntled/fired employees or of completely unguarded networks. Most corporate security violations are the work of disgruntled/fired employees or of completely unguarded networks. There is a real threat, SIMS receives five to ten attempted security breaches a week. There is a real threat, SIMS receives five to ten attempted security breaches a week.

13 Are you a target ? YES Unfortunately any company in the “security” industry is a little more of a target than other small business. Unfortunately any company in the “security” industry is a little more of a target than other small business. Any company is a target though, by accident or intentionally. Any company is a target though, by accident or intentionally.

14 Is it worth the risk ? Just like the Yellow Pages, the Internet is a means of consumers to locate and research the companies and products they are interested in. Just like the Yellow Pages, the Internet is a means of consumers to locate and research the companies and products they are interested in. Everything is on-line, job ads, alarm distributors, even BBB records you can use to research other companies before you do business with them. Everything is on-line, job ads, alarm distributors, even BBB records you can use to research other companies before you do business with them.

15 Will I make millions from it ? Putting your company on the internet isn’t a guarantee of success, but it is one more tool you and your customers can use to mutual benefit. Putting your company on the internet isn’t a guarantee of success, but it is one more tool you and your customers can use to mutual benefit. It’s for you to use as a business resource, not just for sales. It’s for you to use as a business resource, not just for sales. Program updates from SIMS, anti-virus vendors and operating system vendors. Program updates from SIMS, anti-virus vendors and operating system vendors.

16 It’s too difficult to use/setup ! Most ISP’s offer DSL service that includes basic firewall protection in the router. Most ISP’s offer DSL service that includes basic firewall protection in the router. KISS – Keep It Simple to start and as your company relies on it more, go to the next level. KISS – Keep It Simple to start and as your company relies on it more, go to the next level. Use outsourcing for , your web site and so forth until you have the technical talent in your company to bring it in-house. Use outsourcing for , your web site and so forth until you have the technical talent in your company to bring it in-house.

17 What type of connection ? Non-dedicated connection (dial-up). Non-dedicated connection (dial-up). Good for just checking and surfing the web by your employees. Good for just checking and surfing the web by your employees. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Always on connectivity using standard telephone wiring. Always on connectivity using standard telephone wiring. Faster than dial-up, but not a dedicated circuit and doesn’t have same service level agreements typically. Can host a web/ server with DSL circuits from most ISP’s. Faster than dial-up, but not a dedicated circuit and doesn’t have same service level agreements typically. Can host a web/ server with DSL circuits from most ISP’s.

18 What type of connection ? Digital Subscriber Line (DSL continued)…. Digital Subscriber Line (DSL continued)…. Asynchronous DSL (ADSL) has a different speed in one direction (typically faster download) than upload speed. Good for surfing the web but not for hosting servers. Asynchronous DSL (ADSL) has a different speed in one direction (typically faster download) than upload speed. Good for surfing the web but not for hosting servers. Synchronous DSL (SDSL) has the same speed downloading as it does for uploading. Can be used to host servers in your office if ISP allows it. Synchronous DSL (SDSL) has the same speed downloading as it does for uploading. Can be used to host servers in your office if ISP allows it.

19 What type of connection ? Dedicated Circuits (T1, T3, etc). Dedicated Circuits (T1, T3, etc). Use a dedicated circuit qualified for data only, usually is much “cleaner” than typical voice lines. Circuit is tagged as a data circuit in phone drop boxes and switching centers. Use a dedicated circuit qualified for data only, usually is much “cleaner” than typical voice lines. Circuit is tagged as a data circuit in phone drop boxes and switching centers. Most have service level agreements certifying the number of dropped packets, error rate and so forth which are acceptable, unlike DSL circuits which are only required to meet voice-grade spec’s. Most have service level agreements certifying the number of dropped packets, error rate and so forth which are acceptable, unlike DSL circuits which are only required to meet voice-grade spec’s.

20 How does it connect ? Most ISP’s offer plans which for a monthly fee will include a router. In my opinion it’s best to lease the router from them until you learn more about what you are doing and are comfortable configuring the router yourself. Most ISP’s offer plans which for a monthly fee will include a router. In my opinion it’s best to lease the router from them until you learn more about what you are doing and are comfortable configuring the router yourself. Leasing the router avoids any finger pointing if you have problems getting circuit operational since they supplied it. Leasing the router avoids any finger pointing if you have problems getting circuit operational since they supplied it. Leasing the router doesn’t lock you into buying a router until you are sure the circuit will meet your needs for the long term. Leasing the router doesn’t lock you into buying a router until you are sure the circuit will meet your needs for the long term.

21 But HOW does it connect ? Most routers have a standard Ethernet connection just like workstations. Most routers have a standard Ethernet connection just like workstations. Plug it in to your network hub/switch. Plug it in to your network hub/switch. Make sure your router has firewall/filtering built into it or you possibly expose your network. Make sure your router has firewall/filtering built into it or you possibly expose your network. Purchase a firewall and place it between the internet router and your network. Purchase a firewall and place it between the internet router and your network.

22 What is the best circuit ? The “best” is in the eye of the beholder. If you just need to surf the web and check , a dialup connection might be the best solution. If you want to do constant updates to your web site, do video streaming, receive alarm messages over the net, etc…. Then a dedicated connection is needed. The “best” is in the eye of the beholder. If you just need to surf the web and check , a dialup connection might be the best solution. If you want to do constant updates to your web site, do video streaming, receive alarm messages over the net, etc…. Then a dedicated connection is needed.

23 What does SIMS use ? SIMS currently uses a flexible T1 from UUNet. We pay for a 768kb connection but can actually use the full 1.5mb range of the T1 for short “bursts” where our traffic exceeds our capacity. SIMS currently uses a flexible T1 from UUNet. We pay for a 768kb connection but can actually use the full 1.5mb range of the T1 for short “bursts” where our traffic exceeds our capacity. We have a Cisco 1720 router which we purchased from UUNet. We have a Cisco 1720 router which we purchased from UUNet. Previously we had a 768k SDSL connection but almost weekly had connectivity issues. Previously we had a 768k SDSL connection but almost weekly had connectivity issues.

24 SIMS: How much data ? Although we pay for 768kb connection, we seldom use that much capacity. Even with our mail servers, web servers, name servers and our workstations, we normally use an average of 400kb. About three times a month we go beyond our 768 limit when many customers are downloading program updates at the same time. Although we pay for 768kb connection, we seldom use that much capacity. Even with our mail servers, web servers, name servers and our workstations, we normally use an average of 400kb. About three times a month we go beyond our 768 limit when many customers are downloading program updates at the same time.

25 SIMS: Security precautions We use a firewall method called De- Marcation Zoning (DMZ) whereby the firewall has two “zones”. We use a firewall method called De- Marcation Zoning (DMZ) whereby the firewall has two “zones”. The DMZ “zone” contains all servers that need to be accessed by the outside world. The DMZ “zone” contains all servers that need to be accessed by the outside world. The LAN “zone” connects to the in-house switch to provide outbound access for SIMS workstations. The LAN “zone” connects to the in-house switch to provide outbound access for SIMS workstations.

26 SIMS: Security continued… DMZ pro’s and con’s…… DMZ pro’s and con’s…… Requires “public” servers by physically isolated from internal servers, thus requiring more computers, more cabling and more advanced configuration. Requires “public” servers by physically isolated from internal servers, thus requiring more computers, more cabling and more advanced configuration. Provides an extra level of protection as even if public servers are compromised, the in-house network is not. Provides an extra level of protection as even if public servers are compromised, the in-house network is not.

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29 SIMS: How many servers ? We have five servers dedicated to internet functions. We have five servers dedicated to internet functions. Three of these servers share the load of our web sites, and name server functions. Three of these servers share the load of our web sites, and name server functions. One server is dedicated to the demo SIMSWeb site. One server is dedicated to the demo SIMSWeb site. One server is dedicated to the Customer Access (BBS) portion of our web site. One server is dedicated to the Customer Access (BBS) portion of our web site.

30 SIMS: Monitoring / Alerting ? Firewall instant messages my cell phone to any known attacks. Firewall instant messages my cell phone to any known attacks. Custom written filters watch for suspicious traffic and notify if trigger levels are reached. Custom written filters watch for suspicious traffic and notify if trigger levels are reached. All incoming and outgoing is virus scanned and scanned for other content not desired. All incoming and outgoing is virus scanned and scanned for other content not desired.

31 SIMS: Pre-Emptive Measures… All traffic is logged and any traffic not deemed “normal” is ed for review. All traffic is logged and any traffic not deemed “normal” is ed for review. Several “Honeypot” services are run which look like vulnerable systems (ftp servers with no passwords, etc). Any attacks on these are stealthily logged and the IP address is automatically blocked from accessing ALL SIMS servers for two hours. Several “Honeypot” services are run which look like vulnerable systems (ftp servers with no passwords, etc). Any attacks on these are stealthily logged and the IP address is automatically blocked from accessing ALL SIMS servers for two hours.

32 SIMS: Paranoid or Cautious ? Every week we receive between five and ten “attacks” against our servers. Every week we receive between five and ten “attacks” against our servers. Most are scripts run from other violated servers on the internet looking for new sites to attack. Most are scripts run from other violated servers on the internet looking for new sites to attack. About once a year a full fledged attack against multiple servers at SIMS occurs. About once a year a full fledged attack against multiple servers at SIMS occurs. The SIMS network has never been compromised, at worst we shut down our Internet connection for a couple of hours to eliminate the targets of the attack. It’s not any fun to attack servers that aren’t on-line any longer. The SIMS network has never been compromised, at worst we shut down our Internet connection for a couple of hours to eliminate the targets of the attack. It’s not any fun to attack servers that aren’t on-line any longer.

33 Why are sites attacked ? “Script Kiddies” trying to prove their ability to compromise systems to their friends. Targets are chosen based on the publicity they would receive or because they know the target site. “Script Kiddies” trying to prove their ability to compromise systems to their friends. Targets are chosen based on the publicity they would receive or because they know the target site. Retaliation for past “wrongs”. Current or ex- employees trying to get even or access documents/files they feel entitled to. Retaliation for past “wrongs”. Current or ex- employees trying to get even or access documents/files they feel entitled to. Directed Attacks against competitors or other companies for the purpose of humiliating them or obtain trade secrets. Directed Attacks against competitors or other companies for the purpose of humiliating them or obtain trade secrets.

34 How are sites attacked ? Servers left unprotected. New security vulnerabilities come out weekly, sometimes daily for Windows. Make sure you apply patches before someone uses the “hole” against you. Servers left unprotected. New security vulnerabilities come out weekly, sometimes daily for Windows. Make sure you apply patches before someone uses the “hole” against you. Services you don’t know are running. When installing software, many programs open back-doors that can be exploited by others that know where they are. Services you don’t know are running. When installing software, many programs open back-doors that can be exploited by others that know where they are.

35 How are sites attacked ? Trojan Horse programs. Sent either by or downloaded by a user unsuspectingly by advertising the program as something it’s not. Once the Trojan Horse program is executed, it can open back-doors and even send a message to it’s creator to let them know there is a new system ready to be attacked by them. Trojan Horse programs can even send copies of passwords stored on your system. Trojan Horse programs. Sent either by or downloaded by a user unsuspectingly by advertising the program as something it’s not. Once the Trojan Horse program is executed, it can open back-doors and even send a message to it’s creator to let them know there is a new system ready to be attacked by them. Trojan Horse programs can even send copies of passwords stored on your system.

36 Safe Surfing…… Teach your employees not to download things to their work computers. Go to the point of creating a company policy that forbids installation of unauthorized programs. Programs advertised as screen savers are the #1 way that Trojan Horse programs get their victim to load them. Teach your employees not to download things to their work computers. Go to the point of creating a company policy that forbids installation of unauthorized programs. Programs advertised as screen savers are the #1 way that Trojan Horse programs get their victim to load them.

37 Information Leaks…… NEVER throw away documents with passwords or other information about your network without shredding them first. “Dumpster Diving” is the most common way that hackers gather information during a directed attack. NEVER throw away documents with passwords or other information about your network without shredding them first. “Dumpster Diving” is the most common way that hackers gather information during a directed attack.

38 Personal Information Leaks…… Even though people know better, they use their families names, birthdays or pet information as passwords. Even though people know better, they use their families names, birthdays or pet information as passwords. Callers pretending to be “old friends” will call office saying “I’m an old college buddy, what’s Joe’s wife’s name again ? When is his birthday ? I want to surprise him, don’t tell him I called.” Callers pretending to be “old friends” will call office saying “I’m an old college buddy, what’s Joe’s wife’s name again ? When is his birthday ? I want to surprise him, don’t tell him I called.”

39 Equipment Type Leaks…… Callers will state they are XYZ ISP and they are sure they can beat the price you are paying now. “Who is your ISP ? What type of router do you have ? Who handles your firewall ?” All this is information they can use to determine more information than you want hackers to know about you. Callers will state they are XYZ ISP and they are sure they can beat the price you are paying now. “Who is your ISP ? What type of router do you have ? Who handles your firewall ?” All this is information they can use to determine more information than you want hackers to know about you.

40 So WHY connect again ? Used intelligently, the Internet gives your company great possibilities. You don’t let your kids drive your car before they’ve learned how…. Don’t put your company on the Internet until you know how to safely. The old adage “It’s better to be safe than sorry” holds true even in this “connected” age. Used intelligently, the Internet gives your company great possibilities. You don’t let your kids drive your car before they’ve learned how…. Don’t put your company on the Internet until you know how to safely. The old adage “It’s better to be safe than sorry” holds true even in this “connected” age.

41 Top Ten Security Precautions 10. Virus scanners on all workstations. 9. Keep security patches current. 8. Passwords on all computers. 7. Remote access software locked down to specific machines that need access. 6. Pro-active monitoring of activity. 5. Kill un-needed programs/services.

42 Top Ten continued….. 6. Know what is “normal” traffic. 5. Change passwords regularly and use passwords that use mix of letters, numbers and special characters. 4. Shred all security related documents. 3. Train employees about security. 2. Create a security procedure/manual.

43 Top Ten continued….. 1.Trust that the rules of network security change daily, there is no such thing as a 100% secure network and never assume your network is secure because you haven’t noticed anything missing yet. If humans create the security, other humans can break it. It’s just a matter of how much time they are willing to spend to get in.

44 Questions ?


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