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Chapter 14: Wars of Religion THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH.

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1 Chapter 14: Wars of Religion THE HISTORY OF THE CHURCH

2 ANTICIPATORY SET Analyze the illustration on page 509. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

3 BASIC QUESTION  What caused the Revolt of the Low Countries, and what were the effects of the ensuing war? KEY IDEA  King Philip II’s absolutist governing style and fervent Catholicism contributed to unrest in the prosperous and independent-minded Low Countries. After a Calvinist iconoclastic campaign in the Low Countries, Philip II repressed the entire region harshly in the Spanish Fury, which prompted the Calvinist William of Orange to invade against the Spanish. When England entered the war, the Low Countries became divided permanently between the Calvinist United Provinces in the north and the Spanish Netherlands in the south. The economy in the south was ruined, and Amsterdam became the commercial and financial center of Europe. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

4 GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:  Why might religious zealots as well as nobles have wanted to throw off the yoke of the Spanish monarch? 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

5 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was Philip II’s lifestyle? An ardent Catholic and the most powerful man in Europe, he lived a simple and austere lifestyle. How did Philip II rule? He was an absolute ruler who was very hands-on, sending thousands of orders all over the world from his small cell. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

6 FOCUS QUESTIONS How did Philip II behave upon conquering the Papal States? He was magnanimous and apologized to the Pope for needing to invade his territory. How were the Low Countries economically? They were very prosperous with both a thriving agricultural and commercial economy and a thriving population. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

7 FOCUS QUESTIONS How successful was naval trade in the Low Countries? It was very successful; some 500 vessels entered and left the port of Antwerp each day. How was the government in the Low Countries unique? Each of the seventeen provinces was a state unto itself with its own legislature and local government. There was a central government in Brussels that led the federation only in times of trouble. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

8 FOCUS QUESTIONS How was Philip II’s policy toward the Low Countries different from that of his father Charles V? Charles V was fair and evenhanded, tolerating Calvinists and Anabaptists. Philip II intended to bring absolute rule to the Low Countries. What was the political dimension of the rebellion in the Low Countries? The local nobles did not like the presence of the 3000 Spanish soldiers that Philip II had sent to guard the border with France. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

9 FOCUS QUESTION What was the religious dimension of the rebellion in the Low Countries? Philip II intended to impose the Tridentine reforms by restructuring the dioceses, which upset some Catholic nobles and abbots. Protestant civil leaders were wary that Catholicism would be forced upon them, and there was a rumor that an Inquisition would be established. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

10 GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to perform a paragraph shrink on the paragraph “Alba was a superior…” (p. 514) to summarize Phillip II’s reason for a campaign against the Low Countries. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

11 FOCUS QUESTION What improper actions did the Duke of Alba take toward the Low Countries? The Spanish army under the Duke of Alba repressed the Low Countries mercilessly: their rights were ignored, there were summary executions of thousands, lands were confiscated, heavy taxes were imposed, and trade was brought to a standstill. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

12 FOCUS QUESTIONS How was William of Orange a religious chameleon? When with Philip II, William was Catholic; when with German princes, a Lutheran; and when Calvinism became the prominent religion among the Dutch, he was a Calvinist. Why did the Duke of Alba think that the campaign against William of Orange’s invasion was over quickly? William and his brother’s army of German mercenaries were driven out of the Low Countries quickly. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

13 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the Spanish Fury? The Spanish army, which had not been paid, mutinied and sacked Antwerp, pillaging the city and killing over 6000 people. What was the consequence of the Spanish Fury? Almost everyone in the Low Countries, even Catholic leaders, joined the Calvinist William of Orange against the Spanish. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

14 FOCUS QUESTION How did Spain win back much of the Low Countries? Military victories, religious toleration, a promise of the restoration of political rights, and fear of the Calvinist William of Orange’s growing power resulted in the ten southern provinces remaining loyal to the Spanish crown. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

15 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table according to the map “The Revolt of the Low Countries Against Spain” (p. 516). 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

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17 GUIDED EXERCISE Perform a focused reading of the section “English Support and the End of the Conflict” (p. 518) using the following question:  What effect did England have by entering the war on the Protestant side? 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

18 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 1–10 (p. 540)  Practical Exercise 1 (p. 541)  Workbook Questions 1–18  Read “The Huguenot Wars” through “Richelieu’s Influence and Power” (pp. 519–524) 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

19 CLOSURE Write a paragraph about the cause of the Revolt of the Low Countries and the effects of the ensuing war. 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

20 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Read aloud the Catechism, nos. 2307 and 2308 (p. 542), and then discuss how the following parties in the wars of the Low Countries might respond to these points:  Philip II of Spain  Catholic nobles of Spain  William of Orange and the Calvinists  Spanish soldiers  Queen Elizabeth I of England 1. Spain and the Empire of Philip II (pp. 510–518)

21 ANTICIPATORY SET Analyze the illustrations on page 520. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

22 BASIC QUESTION  What were the cause and effects of the Huguenot Wars? KEY IDEA  Three factions strove for political dominance in France: The House of Guise, a Catholic dynasty that had claims to the throne; the Huguenots, a professional warrior class of landed gentry who adopted Calvinism largely as a pretext to protest the king; and the politiques, rulers out for political power, the most noted of which were Catherine de Medici and Cardinal Richelieu. The Huguenot Wars were bloody civil wars; their result was increased power for the monarch and the elimination of Calvinists from French society. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

23 FOCUS QUESTIONS How was conversion from Catholicism to Calvinism largely a pretext for many of the French landed gentry? Many of the landed gentry became Protestant to distinguish themselves from their Catholic monarchs. Religious belief had little to do with any political group in France. What factors made the Tridentine reforms difficult to implement in France? The Popes had very little prestige or authority in France. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

24 FOCUS QUESTIONS Why did the populace tend to side with the king over the lords of France? The king represented a power to which people could appeal to seek redress from local lords, who in some regions had nearly absolute authority. What was the political thrust of Francis II’s short rule? His uncles, who dominated the teenage king, maintained Catholicism as the only licit religion in France and thus persecuted Huguenots. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

25 FOCUS QUESTIONS How is it clear that Catherine de Medici’s only real concern was political power? To offset the power of the Guise family, Catherine appointed Huguenots to positions of power and tried to arrange marriages for her children with Protestant leaders, including Queen Elizabeth I, as well as a marriage for her daughter with the Catholic King of Spain. What set a civil war in motion in France? The assassination of Francis, Duke of Guise, resulted in a Catholic- Huguenot civil war. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

26 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table about the French factions. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

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28 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the immediate effect of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? Catholics murdered Admiral Coligny and perhaps 2000 Protestant leaders and supporters. How did the violence spread during the next few weeks? Catholic mobs and the King’s Swiss Guards killed up to 100,000 Calvinists throughout France. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

29 FOCUS QUESTIONS How did both parties respond to the violence following the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? Each party hired mercenary soldiers who slaughtered each other and terrorized civilians. Some 20,000 Catholic churches were looted and destroyed, and thousands of priests and religious were massacred. Why were so many of the Huguenot leaders in Paris at the time of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre? They were in Paris to attend the wedding of Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, to Margaret, a daughter of Catherine de Medici. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

30 FOCUS QUESTIONS What rumor did Catherine de Medici start? A Protestant insurrection was being planned in Paris. How did Catholic supporters react to this rumor? They carried out a preemptive counterattack. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

31 FOCUS QUESTIONS Who were the three Henrys? King Henry III of France was the youngest son of Catherine de Medici; he wanted to tolerate Protestants for the sake of peace. Henry of Guise, founder of the Catholic League, demanded the suppression of Protestants. Henry of Navarre, a Huguenot, was an heir to the French throne. What was the fate of the three Henrys? King Henry III and Henry of Navarre orchestrated the assassination of Henry of Guise, and then King Henry III was assassinated. This left Henry of Navarre heir to the throne. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

32 FOCUS QUESTIONS Why did Henry of Navarre convert from Calvinism to Catholicism? It was a legal requirement to ascend to the throne. He is reputed to have said, “Paris is well worth a Mass.” Who ruled France during the minority of Louis XIII? Cardinal Richelieu ruled France. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

33 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was Cardinal Richelieu’s goal? He wanted to centralize the government of France and advance the power of the monarchy by fostering religious unity and promoting anti- Hapsburg policies. How did Cardinal Richelieu seek to achieve his goal? He helped France recover financially from the civil wars by encouraging a mercantile economy and overseas exploration, destroyed all fortified castles not under the king, and rolled back the rights that Protestants had been granted by the Edict of Nantes. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

34 GUIDED EXERCISE Discuss the rights that Protestants gained through the Edict of Nantes. Write them in your notebook. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

35 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 11–19 (p. 540)  Practical Exercise 2 (p. 541)  Workbook Questions 19–33  Read “The British Isles” through “St. John Ogilvie” (pp. 525–530) 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

36 CLOSURE Write a paragraph in response to the following question:  What was the outcome of the Huguenot Wars? 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

37 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Analyze the illustration on page 509, titled “The St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre.” Reinterpret the painting in light of what you know about the Huguenot Wars. 2. The Huguenot Wars (pp. 519–524)

38 ANTICIPATORY SET Analyze the illustration of Queen Elizabeth I’s “Armada Portrait” (p. 529), and then read the speech that Elizabeth gave to her troops before they battled the Spanish Armada, which was sailing to invade England. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

39 BASIC QUESTION  How did the British Isles become the major European Protestant power during the latter half of the sixteenth century? KEY IDEA  Elizabeth I contained and eliminated any real or imaginary threat her cousin Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, posed to her rule. Elizabeth encouraged or engaged in persecution of Catholics in Scotland, England, and Ireland and was fortunate to have avoided an invasion from Philip II of Spain. As a result, England emerged from the sixteenth century as the major defender of Protestantism in Europe. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

40 FOCUS QUESTIONS What role did England play to spread Protestantism in Europe? England was the major defender of Protestantism in the latter half of the sixteenth century, influencing the balance of power in the Low Countries, France, and the German States in her favor. How did Protestantism arise in Scotland? Many nobles sought to enrich themselves and gain political power by seizing Scottish churches and monasteries, which was encouraged by Elizabeth I. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

41 FOCUS QUESTIONS Who was the major Calvinist figure in Scotland? John Knox was a Calvinist preacher who encouraged violence against Catholics and iconoclastic attacks on churches and monasteries. What did Elizabeth I hope to accomplish by prohibiting the Catholic Faith? She hoped that Catholics would either convert to Anglicanism or die out. What steps did Elizabeth take when Catholics resisted her? She increased the severity of penal laws against Catholics, finally decreeing that the practice of the Catholic Faith or adherence to Rome was treason, punishable by death. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

42 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was Douay, and who was its most famous product? Douay was an English seminary in the Spanish Netherlands to train priests for the Catholic Church in England. St. Edmund Campion was a young Anglican who abandoned a promising career after converting to Catholicism. He trained at Douay and joined the Jesuits. He returned to England in secret to minister to the underground Catholic Church. He was eventually arrested and then tortured and martyred. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

43 GUIDED EXERCISE Write a paragraph on how Mary, Queen of Scots, was an unfortunate figure. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

44 GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:  Why might Philip II have been offended by England? 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

45 GUIDED EXERCISE Work with a partner to complete a paragraph shrink of the paragraph “The planned invasion…” (p. 529). 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

46 FOCUS QUESTIONS What did Elizabeth I hope to accomplish in Ireland? She wanted to exterminate the Catholic Faith there. What are some tactics she employed to this end? She abolished the Gaelic language, sent Protestant overlords to control agriculture, and destroyed the crops and livestock in rebellious areas. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

47 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the effect of the English persecution of Catholics in Ireland? The persecution of the Irish Catholics simply deepened their faith. How did St. John Ogilvie become acquainted with Catholicism? He studied at Louvain, where Catholic and Calvinist scholars often debated religion. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

48 FOCUS QUESTIONS What did St. John Ogilvie do upon his return to Scotland? St. John returned to Scotland as a Jesuit priest; he ministered to Catholics and won back some converts. Why was St. John Ogilvie tortured before he was hanged? He refused to give the names of other Catholics he knew. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

49 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 20–26 (p. 540)  Practical Exercise 3 (p. 541)  Workbook Questions 34–44  Read “The Thirty Years War” through “Conclusion” (pp. 531– 537) 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

50 CLOSURE Free write for five minutes on how the British Isles became thoroughly Protestant during the sixteenth century, focusing on Scotland, England, or Ireland. 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

51 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Discuss the following question:  Was Elizabeth I justified in persecuting Catholics given the historical circumstances in which she found herself? 3. The British Isles (pp. 525–530)

52 ANTICIPATORY SET Explain the Objective of this lesson. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

53 BASIC QUESTION  Why was the Thirty Years War fought, and what was its outcome? KEY IDEA  The Thirty Years War began with the outrage of Protestant Bohemian nobles to the appointment of the Hapsburg Catholic Ferdinand of Styria as successor to the Holy Roman emperor Mattihas, who was also the King of Bohemia. It was fought through a series of four phases in which, on the one hand, Calvinist, Lutheran, and Catholic principalities fought each other, and on the other, France, England, Spain, Denmark, and Sweden contended on “neutral” German soil. France emerged from the war as the dominant European power. Germany was both devastated and disunited, although Catholic and Protestant regions were established for many years. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

54 FOCUS QUESTIONS How was the fate of Germany different from that of the rest of the European states by the end of the Thirty Years War? Whereas most nations emerged from the wars of religion as powerful nation-states, the German states were left as a collection of small, disunited kingdoms. Who waged the Thirty Years War? It was waged by independent German princes who resisted the growing imperial designs of the Austrian Hapsburgs. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

55 FOCUS QUESTIONS What had the Peace of Augsburg accomplished in 1555? It divided Germany between Lutheran princes in the north and Catholic in the south. What did Lutherans in Germany have to worry about in the early seventeenth century? They were losing power to Calvinists. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

56 FOCUS QUESTIONS How was Catholic reform in southern Germany? St. Peter Canisius’s Catechism of Trent and the preaching of Capuchin friars and Jesuits resulted in the return of thousands to the Catholic Faith. What prompted the Thirty Years War? Phillip III launched a campaign from Spanish-controlled Burgundy into the Netherlands, attempting to defeat the Calvinists in one blow. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

57 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the Defenestration of Prague? This event usually marks the beginning of the Thirty Years War. Two emissaries of the Holy Roman emperor were thrown out a window (defenestrated) in outrage over the results of choosing the new king. Who were the main opponents in the Bohemian Phase of the war? Ferdinand II, a Catholic supported by the Pope and Spain, fought Frederick V, a Protestant supported by the Dutch and English. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

58 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the outcome of the Bohemian Phase? Ferdinand II defeated Frederick V. Why did the Danish Phase of the war break out? The king of Denmark, Christian IV, wanted to stop the Catholic resurgence and extend Danish influence over northern Europe. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

59 FOCUS QUESTIONS Who was Wallenstein? This Protestant Bohemian noble, a politique, stood to gain from helping the Catholic emperor. He raised an army for Ferdinand and defeated the Bohemian rebels, enriching himself on the lands taken from Protestant nobles. What was the character of Wallenstein’s Catholic army? They were an unruly but successful private army whose soldiers pillaged for pay. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

60 FOCUS QUESTIONS What was the result of the Danish Phase of the war? This was another Catholic victory, cementing Germany under Frederick II’s control. What was the effect of Wallenstein’s advances on Lutherans and Calvinists? With the Protestant Reformation in danger of being undone, these former enemies united their efforts to resist the Catholics. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

61 FOCUS QUESTIONS Why did a Catholic cardinal support Protestants in the Swedish Phase? Cardinal Richelieu wanted to check the power of Ferdinand II. Why did Sweden enter the war? The Swedish king Gustavus Adolfus wanted to control the Baltic region and incorporate northern Germany into his Swedish empire. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

62 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table according to the map “The Thirty Years War in Germany” (p. 534). 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

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64 GRAPHIC ORGANIZER Complete the following table according to the map “After the Wars…the Catholic Recovery” (p. 535). 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

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66 GUIDED EXERCISE Complete a Think/Pair/Share using the following question:  How did the Treaty of Westphalia make France the dominant power in Europe? 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

67 FOCUS QUESTIONS Why was Sweden successful initially in the third phase of the war? Gustavus Adolfus had the quickest and most advanced army on the continent, and he defeated the forces of Ferdinand II, who had removed Wallenstein. What was the ultimate, underlying cause of the war in Germany? It was an international battleground in which Spain and France vied for power, giving little care for Germany. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

68 FOCUS QUESTION What were the effects of the French phase of the war? Germany experienced economic and political chaos. Horrible atrocities resulted: 300,000 soldiers killed and millions dead from malnutrition and disease, including three-quarters of the peasantry. Germany was divided into hundreds of tiny principalities surrounded by powerful nation-states. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

69 HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT  Study Questions 27–33 (p. 540)  Workbook Questions 45–61 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

70 CLOSURE Free write for five minutes on how the Thirty Years War affected Germany. Compare the results of the Thirty Years War with such tragic events as the Black Death or modern wars such as World War I or World War II. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

71 ALTERNATIVE ASSESSMENT Discuss how Pope Bl. John Paul II’s prayer (cf. p. 510) might apply especially to the Thirty Years War. 4. The Thirty Years War (pp. 531–537)

72 THE END


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