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1 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Training of Trainers Dan Olweus, PhD Susan Limber, PhD Nancy Mullin-Rindler, MEd Jane Riese, LSW Vicki Flerx,

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Training of Trainers Dan Olweus, PhD Susan Limber, PhD Nancy Mullin-Rindler, MEd Jane Riese, LSW Vicki Flerx,"— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Training of Trainers Dan Olweus, PhD Susan Limber, PhD Nancy Mullin-Rindler, MEd Jane Riese, LSW Vicki Flerx, PhD Marlene Snyder, PhD

2 2 Program Components School-wide Individual Classroom Community © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

3 3 Parent Involvement Throughout School-wide Classroom Individual Community Parents © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2005

4 4 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program IS... Universal (a school-wide effort)Universal (a school-wide effort) Systems-oriented AND individual- orientedSystems-oriented AND individual- oriented Preventive AND problem-solvingPreventive AND problem-solving Focused on changing norms and behaviorFocused on changing norms and behavior Research-basedResearch-based NOT time-limited: Requires systematic efforts over timeNOT time-limited: Requires systematic efforts over time © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

5 5 The Bullying Prevention Program IS NOT... curriculuma curriculum conflict resolutiona conflict resolution approach peer mediationa peer mediation program anger managementan anger management program © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

6 6 Goals of the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program Reduce existing bully/victim problems among school childrenReduce existing bully/victim problems among school children Prevent the development of new bully/victim problemsPrevent the development of new bully/victim problems Improve peer relationsImprove peer relations Improve school climateImprove school climate © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

7 7 Bullying... “A student is being bullied when he or she is exposed,repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more students.” © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

8 8 Bullying involves an imbalance in power or strength. The student who is bullied has difficulty defending himself/herself. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

9 9 BULLYING = PEER ABUSE © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

10 10 Direct Bullying Hitting, kicking, shoving, spitting…Hitting, kicking, shoving, spitting… Taunting, hurtful teasing, degrading racial or sexual commentsTaunting, hurtful teasing, degrading racial or sexual comments Threatening, obscene gesturesThreatening, obscene gestures © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

11 11 Indirect Bullying © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004 Getting another person to assault someoneGetting another person to assault someone Spreading rumorsSpreading rumors Deliberate exclusion from a group or activityDeliberate exclusion from a group or activity Cyber-bullyingCyber-bullying

12 12 Relational Bullying Targets relationships and social status to cause harm to peers. Can combine direct & indirect bullying strategies. © Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004 BULLYING

13 13 Rough PlayReal FightingBullying Usually friends; often repeated (same players) Usually not friends; typically not repeated Typically not friends; generally repeated Balance of power Power relatively equal Unequal power No intent to harm Intentional harm doing Affect is friendly; positive, mutual Affect negative; aggressive, tense, hostile affect Affect negative; aggressive & differs for victim and aggressor Adapted from Teacher Handbook – pages © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

14 14 Why Focus on Bully/Victim Problems Because of: –Short and long-term effects on victims –Concern about students who bully –Impact on bystanders –School social climate –Legal concerns © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

15 15 Short-term Effects of Being Bullied Lower self-esteemLower self-esteem Depression & anxietyDepression & anxiety Absenteeism & academic achievementAbsenteeism & academic achievement Thoughts of suicideThoughts of suicide IllnessIllness © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

16 16 Health Consequences of Bullying Fekkes et al.(2003) Pediatrics, 144, BulliedNot bullied Headache16%6% Sleep problems42%23% Abdominal pain17%9% Feeling tense20%9% Anxiety28%10% Feeling unhappy23%5% Depression scale moderate indication49%16% strong indication16%2% © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2005

17 17 Lasting Effects of Being Bullied Lower self-esteemLower self-esteem Higher rates of depressionHigher rates of depression © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

18 18 What are Characteristics of Bullied Children? Research suggests that there are two categories of bullied children: Research suggests that there are two categories of bullied children: –“Passive victims” of bullying –“Provocative victims” or “Bully/Victims” © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

19 19 “Passive Victims” Tend To.. Be quiet, cautious,& sensitiveBe quiet, cautious,& sensitive Be insecure, have little confidenceBe insecure, have little confidence Be physically weaker than peers (boys)Be physically weaker than peers (boys) Physically mature earlier (girls)Physically mature earlier (girls) Be afraid of getting hurtBe afraid of getting hurt Find it easier to associate with adults than with peersFind it easier to associate with adults than with peers © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

20 20 Bully/Victims Tend to... Be hyperactive, restless, have difficulty concentratingBe hyperactive, restless, have difficulty concentrating Be hot-tempered, attempt to fight back if provokedBe hot-tempered, attempt to fight back if provoked Be clumsy and immatureBe clumsy and immature Have difficulty reading social signals.Have difficulty reading social signals. Be actively disliked by adults, including their teacher.Be actively disliked by adults, including their teacher. Try to bully weaker students.Try to bully weaker students. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

21 21 Concerns About Children Who Bully Children who bully are more likely to: –Get into frequent fights –Be injured in a fight –Steal, vandalize property –Drink alcohol, smoke –Be truant, drop out of school –Report poorer academic achievement –Perceive a negative climate at school –Carry a weapon © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2005

22 22 Children Who Bully Tend To... Have more positive attitudes toward violence than peersHave more positive attitudes toward violence than peers Have quick tempers, frustrationHave quick tempers, frustration Have difficulty conforming to rulesHave difficulty conforming to rules Be stronger than peers (boys)Be stronger than peers (boys) Appear tough, show little compassion for victimsAppear tough, show little compassion for victims Be aggressive to adultsBe aggressive to adults Be good at talking themselves out of situationsBe good at talking themselves out of situations © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004 NO BULLYING ALLOWED !

23 23 What Motivates Children Who Bully? Like to dominate others in a negative wayLike to dominate others in a negative way Gain satisfaction from inflicting injury and sufferingGain satisfaction from inflicting injury and suffering Receive “rewards” by bullying others (prestige,possessions)Receive “rewards” by bullying others (prestige,possessions) © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

24 24 Effects of Bullying on Bystanders Bystanders may feel: –Afraid –Powerless to change the situation –Guilty for not acting –Diminished empathy for victims over time © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2005

25 25 Effects of Bullying on School Climate Interferes with student learning Creates a climate of fear and disrespect Students may perceive lack of control/caring © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2005

26 26 Possible Legal Concerns State laws related to bullying/bullying prevention Civil suits brought against schools/school systems Risk management issues for schools © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

27 27 When There Are Suspicions of Bullying... Intensify your observations of the possible victimIntensify your observations of the possible victim Confer with colleaguesConfer with colleagues Collect information from studentsCollect information from students Contact parentsContact parents © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

28 28 Gender plays a role Similarities:Similarities: –Both boys and girls engage in frequent verbal bullying. –Girls and boys are equally likely to engage in relational bullying. Differences:Differences: –Boys are more likely to be physically bullied. –Girls are more likely to be bullied through social exclusion, rumor-spreading, cyber bullying, and sexual comments. –Boys are bullied primarily by boys; girls are bullied by boys and girls. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

29 29 Reporting of Victimization Many children do not report bullying to school staff.Many children do not report bullying to school staff. Older students and boys are less likely than younger students and girls to report their victimization.Older students and boys are less likely than younger students and girls to report their victimization. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

30 30 Hallways / stairwells In class (with teacher absent) In gym class/locker rooms In class (with teacher present) In lunch room In the bathroom On the bus On way to and from school At the bus stop Common Bullying Locations Unnever et al., (2001) © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

31 31 Kids Who Observe (Melton et al., 1998) What do you usually do when you see a student being bullied? 38%Nothing--I think the bullying is OK/I take part/I just watch38%Nothing--I think the bullying is OK/I take part/I just watch 27%I don’t do anything, but I think I should help27%I don’t do anything, but I think I should help 35%I try to help him or her35%I try to help him or her © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

32 32 Children Who Bully Can Change Bullying behaviors and victimization experiences are relatively stable over time if there is no intervention.Bullying behaviors and victimization experiences are relatively stable over time if there is no intervention. BUT, appropriate intervention can change behaviors.BUT, appropriate intervention can change behaviors. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

33 33 Risk Factors for Bullying Family School Peers Individual © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

34 34 Peer Risk Factors for Being Bullied Lack of close friends © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

35 35 Peer Risk Factors for Bullying Others Friends/peers with positive attitudes towards violenceFriends/peers with positive attitudes towards violence Exposure to models of bullyingExposure to models of bullying © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

36 36 Family Risk Factors for Bullying Lack of parental warmth and involvementLack of parental warmth and involvement Lack of parental supervisionLack of parental supervision Overly-permissive parentingOverly-permissive parenting Harsh discipline/physical punishmentHarsh discipline/physical punishment © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

37 37 School Risk Factors for Problems of Bullying Reduced supervision during breaksReduced supervision during breaks Students have indifferent or accepting attitudesStudents have indifferent or accepting attitudes Staff have indifferent or accepting attitudes towards bullyingStaff have indifferent or accepting attitudes towards bullying © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

38 38 The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program WHAT’S IT ALL ABOUT?

39 39 The Bullying Circle: Students’ Mode of Reactions/Roles in an Acute Bullying Situation B C D V G E F A Starts the bullying and take an active part Takes an active part, but do not start the bullying Supports the bullying, but do not take an active part Likes the bullying, but do not display open support Watches what happens * Is none of my business * Doesn’t take a stand Dislikes the bullying and think they ought to help, but don’t do it Dislikes the bullying, helps or tries to help the victim The one who is exposed Victim Bully/bullies Follower Henchman Supporter Passive Bully/bullies Passive Supporter Possible Bully Disengaged Onlooker Possible Defender of the victim © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004 Teacher’s Handbook, Ch.3: Pg. 21

40 40 Discussion Questions Where do you see most children in your school/community in this circle? Are these roles static?Where do you see most children in your school/community in this circle? Are these roles static? What keeps more children from being defenders?What keeps more children from being defenders? What are characteristics of defenders?What are characteristics of defenders? How do adults usually respond to children in positions B, C, D, E, and F?How do adults usually respond to children in positions B, C, D, E, and F? © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

41 41 Individual Elements © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

42 42 Elements at the Individual Level 1. On-the-spot interventions 2. Follow-up discussions with children who are bullied 3. Follow-up discussions with children who bully 4. Staff information-sharing 5. Parental involvement © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2001

43 43 Why Adults Don’t Always Intervene: Have difficulty recognizing bullyingHave difficulty recognizing bullying Fail to recognize the importance of interveningFail to recognize the importance of intervening Uncertain how best to interveneUncertain how best to intervene © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

44 44 On-the-Spot Interventions: The “Teachable Moment” 1.Stop the bullying 2.Separate the person who bullied from the victim 3. Support the victim 4. Name the bullying behavior 5. Refer to the school rules 6. Impose immediate consequences (where appropriate) 7. Encourage the bystanders © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

45 45 Follow-Up Interventions 1. Report the incident, increase adult vigilance communication, and prevent retaliation. 2. Identify staff person to talk with the parties. 3. Conduct separate talks with the child who is bullied, and the children who bully, beginning with the child who is bullied. 4. Implement supports for child who is bullied. 5. Impose consequences for the children who bully. 6. Talk with parents. 7. Follow-up with the involved individuals later. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

46 46 Sharing Information About Bullying Incidents Who needs to be involved? How are incidents reported? –Between teachers and staff –To administrators How is information shared with parents? How is information shared with involved students? © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

47 47 Against Bullying I will not bully others.I will not bully others. I will try to help students who are bullied.I will try to help students who are bullied. I will include students who are easily left out.I will include students who are easily left out. I will tell an adult at home and an adult at school when I know someone is being bullied.I will tell an adult at home and an adult at school when I know someone is being bullied. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

48 48 Use Consistent Positive and Negative Consequences Identify consequences currently being used with bullying.Identify consequences currently being used with bullying. Assess which are effective and which are not.Assess which are effective and which are not. Develop graduated sanctions and rewards that are developmentally appropriate.Develop graduated sanctions and rewards that are developmentally appropriate. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

49 49 Classroom Meetings Select a predictable time in which to discuss bullying and peer relationsSelect a predictable time in which to discuss bullying and peer relations Meetings build a sense of class cohesion & communityMeetings build a sense of class cohesion & community Be flexible in following students’ ideas for discussion topicsBe flexible in following students’ ideas for discussion topics Use role playing to engage studentsUse role playing to engage students © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

50 50 Classroom Meeting Guidelines Sit in circle if possibleSit in circle if possible Raise hands to speakRaise hands to speak Everyone has the right to be heard without interruptionEveryone has the right to be heard without interruption Disagree without being disagreeableDisagree without being disagreeable Avoid names--focus on eventsAvoid names--focus on events © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

51 51 What Can Parents Do If Their Child Is Bullied? Help the child develop talents and positive attributesHelp the child develop talents and positive attributes Encourage the child to make contact with friendly student(s) in their classesEncourage the child to make contact with friendly student(s) in their classes Encourage the child to get to know peers in new situationsEncourage the child to get to know peers in new situations © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

52 52 What Doesn’t Work? Ignoring the problem Blaming your child for provoking bullying Telling the child to “hit back” Calling the parents of the bully – unless there is a friendly relationship between parents © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

53 53 Communicate directly to the child: -We know you have been involved in bullying -Bullying is a serious behavior -We will not tolerate any future bullying behavior © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004 What Can Parents Do If Their Child Bullies Others?

54 54 Enforce family rulesEnforce family rules Reinforce positive and kind behaviorReinforce positive and kind behavior Spend more time with your childSpend more time with your child Monitor the child’s activitiesMonitor the child’s activities Build upon the child’s talentsBuild upon the child’s talents Help child find more appropriate behavior patternsHelp child find more appropriate behavior patterns Seek professional assistance, if necessarySeek professional assistance, if necessary © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004 What Can Parents Do If Their Child Bullies Others?

55 55 What Doesn’t Work? Ignoring the problem Denying that their child could do such a thing as bullying Protecting the child from consequences Blaming the victim for your child’s problems © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

56 56 COMMUNITY EFFORTS © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

57 57 Community Involvement Look for ways that community members can support the school’s effortsLook for ways that community members can support the school’s efforts Examine strategies for spreading anti-bullying messages beyond the school’s doorsExamine strategies for spreading anti-bullying messages beyond the school’s doors © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

58 58 Communities Support Prevention Efforts Parent Teacher Association (PTA) Family Resource Center County Commissioners Non-Profit Family/Child Organizations Violence Prevention Coalitions Public Service Organizations (Kiwanis, Rotary) © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

59 59 Spreading the Anti-Bullying Message in the Community Local Media – Newspapers/ Radio/ Television City and County Health Departments Local Police Departments Domestic Violence Coalitions Juvenile Court © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

60 60 Take-Home Message Stopping bullying takes a team effort.Stopping bullying takes a team effort. Approach the process in steps.Approach the process in steps. Change happens in small increments.Change happens in small increments. © The Olweus Bullying Prevention Group, 2004

61 61 Use of this presentation is restricted to persons trained by the authors in the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program and groups they work with for the express purpose of training schools, parents and community groups about the Olweus Bullying Prevention Program model. Appropriate credit to the Olweus Bullying Prevention Group must appear on all presentation materials. No other use or changes are permitted without prior written permission from the authors. For further information, please contact: Marlene Snyder, PhD at or call © 2004 Susan Limber, PhD ; Nancy Mullin-Rindler, MEd; Jane Riese, MSW; This presentation is based on the work of Dan Olweus, PhD Vicki Flerx, PhD; and Marlene Snyder, PhD This presentation is based on the work of Dan Olweus, PhD


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