Presentation on theme: "Derives from Latin word for “propagate” From the name of a missionary organization started by Pope Gregory XV in 1623, Congregatio de propaganda fide (Congregation."— Presentation transcript:
Derives from Latin word for “propagate” From the name of a missionary organization started by Pope Gregory XV in 1623, Congregatio de propaganda fide (Congregation for Propagating the Faith) Common definition: (the spreading of) ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping an institution, cause, or person Propaganda
“Appeals”: Methods Used Glamor (2) Shame (1) Fear (4) Name-Calling (1) Glittering Generalities (1)
Make the enemy inhuman and, therefore, easier to exclude Hide the enemy’s eyes; give “it” demonic features Less human suggests less moral “Evangelical references satanized the enemy, and imparted a sense of justice, even holiness, on the actions the Allies were taking against them. Source for quotations: http://www.duke.edu/~ejh2/ps120/method.htm Fear Appeal: Demonization
Undoing Demonization? “In creating deep-seated beliefs to garner support for the war, propagandists effectively made it more difficult to end the war. How does a nation transform itself from the great demon of the time to a friendly neighbor once again? The second World War started, in part, because of the peace that ended the first Great War. World War I propaganda might thus have contributed, though indirectly, to the start of World War II.” Source: http://www.duke.edu/~ejh2/ps120/method.htm
Fear Appeal American WWII propaganda poster These images appeal to darker impulses, fostering feelings of suspicion, fear, and even hate.” Source: Nat’l Archives Exhibit on U.S. in WWII http://wae.clever.net/webcat/powers/powers.htm
Bad Names (less subtle) Negative Emotional Charge (more subtle) The name-calling technique links a person, or idea, to a negative symbol. The propagandist who uses this technique hopes that the audience will reject the person or the idea on the basis of the negative symbol, instead of looking at the available evidence. Methods: Source: http://carmen.artsci.washington.edu/propaganda/name.htm Name-Calling Definition
Name-Calling Definition “A more subtle form of name-calling involves words or phrases that are selected because they possess a negative emotional charge. Those who oppose budget cuts may characterize fiscally conservative politicians as ‘stingy.’ Supporters might prefer to describe them as ‘thrifty.’ Both words refer to the same behavior, but they have very different connotations. Examples of negatively charged words include: Source: http://carmen.artsci.washington.edu/propaganda/name.htm social engineering radical stingy ”
Glittering Generalities Glittering Generalities … poster 9 of 10 Canadian WWII propaganda poster
Glittering Generalities virtue words about which we have deep-set ideas. Such words include civilization, Christianity, good, proper, right, democracy, patriotism, motherhood, fatherhood, science, medicine, health, and love. “We believe in, fight for, live by virtue words about which we have deep-set ideas. Such words include civilization, Christianity, good, proper, right, democracy, patriotism, motherhood, fatherhood, science, medicine, health, and love. “…We call these virtue words "Glittering Generalities" in order to focus attention upon this dangerous characteristic that they have: They mean different things to different people; they can be used in different ways. cherished words and beliefs “This is... a criticism of the uses to which propagandists put the cherished words and beliefs of unsuspecting people.” Source: IPA website at http://carmen.artsci.washington.edu/propaganda/glitter.htm
Glittering Generalities “The Glittering Generality is, in short, Name Calling in reverse. Generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence “The Glittering Generality is, in short, Name Calling in reverse. While Name Calling seeks to make us form a judgment to reject and condemn without examining the evidence, the Glittering Generality device seeks to make us approve and accept without examining the evidence. In acquainting ourselves with the Glittering Generality Device, therefore, all that has been said regarding Name Calling must be kept in mind…” Source: IPA website at http://carmen.artsci.washington.edu/propaganda/glitter.htm See also: “Addendum to Propaganda” slide 5
Red Herring Logical Form: Argument A is presented by person 1. Person 2 introduces argument B. Argument A is abandoned. Red Herrings function as smoke screens; they illogically shift the conversation from one topic to another and hope the listeners/participants take the proverbial bait.
Red Herring Reporter: "Senator Snort, what about these allegations of taking campaign money from the Chinese?” Sen. Snort: "I'm glad you asked me that. This bipartisan bill that I'm introducing will reform campaign finance in this country."
Red Herring Mike: It is morally wrong to cheat on your spouse, why on earth would you have done that? Ken: But what is morality exactly? Mike: It’s a code of conduct shared by cultures. Ken: But who creates this code?....
Circular Argument A type of reasoning in which the proposition is supported by the premises, which is supported by the proposition, creating a circle in reasoning where no useful information is being shared. Logical Form: X is true because of Y. Y is true because of X.
Circular Argument “The Bible is the Word of God because God tells us it is... in the Bible.” "What you are doing must be criminal, otherwise it wouldn't be against the law"
Alternate List of Methods Used Alternate List: Name-Calling Glittering Generalities Transfer Testimonial Plain Folks Card-Stacking Band Wagon Source: The Institute For Propaganda Analysis, 1937 same co-opt use of an emotion-stirring symbol seem to align with a respected person that leader is just like you or me stack the deck: bias in giving evidence “everyone’s doing it”
All these “propaganda methods” rely on fallacious logic Premise 1: Bill Clinton supported gun-control legislation. Premise 2: All fascist regimes of the twentieth century passed gun-control legislation. Conclusion: Bill Clinton was a fascist. Source: IPA website at http://carmen.artsci.washington.edu/propaganda/logic.htm Here is a particular type of syllogistic fallacy called “fallacy of the undistributed middle term.”
Key question: Who thinks? Summary: propaganda relies on its recipient not thinking