Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

FRANCE ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION A COMPLETE MESS UNEQUAL AND UNJUST SOCIAL SYSTEM UNDEMOCRATIC POLITICAL SYSTEM INEFFICIENT, CORRUPT, CHAOTIC GOVERNMENT.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "FRANCE ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION A COMPLETE MESS UNEQUAL AND UNJUST SOCIAL SYSTEM UNDEMOCRATIC POLITICAL SYSTEM INEFFICIENT, CORRUPT, CHAOTIC GOVERNMENT."— Presentation transcript:

1 FRANCE ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION A COMPLETE MESS UNEQUAL AND UNJUST SOCIAL SYSTEM UNDEMOCRATIC POLITICAL SYSTEM INEFFICIENT, CORRUPT, CHAOTIC GOVERNMENT EVER-GROWING FINANCIAL CRISIS –Caused by incompetence, corruption, lavish spending, and an adventurous foreign policy –No attempt by French monarchs to correct the situation –Ministers slid by with stop-gap measures and half-hearted reforms Louis XV Louis XVI

2 IMPACT OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION ON THE BRINK OF BANKRUPTCY BY 1780S FRENCH GOVERNMENT PROVIDED HUGE AMOUNTS OF AID TO AMERICANS WHY? –POWER POLITICS— OPPORTUNITY TO WEAKEN GREAT BRITAIN RESULT? –Americans achieved their independence –France ran completely out of money in 1787 Marquis de Lafayette and George Washington

3 ESTATES GENERAL KING NEEDED TO TAX NOBILITY NOBILITY INSISTED ON CONVOCATION OF ESTATES GENERAL –Ancient semi- representative assembly –Had not met since 1614 –Old voting procedures gave each estate one vote –Negated numerical superiority of Third Estate and would give nobles essential control of assembly –Use control to wrest control of kingdom from king KING FINALLY AGREES; ESTATES GENERAL MEETS ON MAY 14, 1789

4 TENNIS COURT OATH Delegates of Third Estate walk out over dispute over voting regulations –Want one vote per delegate, not one vote per estate –Would give them control of assembly Meet in nearby tennis court –Declare themselves the National Assembly –Only body with right to pass laws –Refuse to disband until they had written a constitution for France

5 STORMING OF THE BASTILLE King issues call to bring in troops to disband National Assembly Rumor spreads through Paris that troops are coming; panic sets in and mobs form July 14, 1789—mob attacks Bastille, an old fortress believed to be storage point for gunpowder Attack on Bastille frightens king into ordering troops to stay out of Paris Common people save the National Assembly and the Revolution

6 A PROMISING START AUGUST 4, 1789—ALL FEUDAL OBLIGATIONS, ROYAL TAXES, PRIVILEGES, AND THE TITHE ABOLISHED DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AND CITIZEN Established civil equality Equal opportunity for public service Freedoms of religion, press, speech, and assembly

7 CONSTITUTION OF 1791 DISAGREEMENTS OVER CONTENT OF CONSTITUTION –Moderates want constitutional monarchy –Radicals want push for economic and social equality MODERATE POSITION BASICALLY PREVAILS AFTER 2 YEARS OF DEBATE –Constitutional monarchy with Louis XVI as a figurehead king –Most power concentrated in single house legislature

8 FAILURE REASONS FOR FAILURE OF CONSTITUTION –Sabotage by Louis XVI –Common people dissatisfied with it –War with Austrian Empire and Prussia

9 WHAT TO DO WITH A NITWIT Convinced that Louis XVI has committed treason, crowd attacks his palace King asks Legislature to protect him Legislature strips him of title, proclaims France a Republic, and issues election call for a new Constitutional Convention, the National Convention

10 NATIONAL CONVENTION National Conventions splits into two factions over issue of what to do with king –Mountain, headed by Maxmilien Robespierre, want to execute him –Girondins, from region around Bordeaux, want to spare king to avoid European-wide war Mountain wins narrow victory and Louis XVI is executed on guillotine in January 1793

11 EXECUTION OF LOUIS XVI

12 THE MOUNTAIN TRIUMPHS CONTINUED DISPUTES LEAD TO DEFEAT AND EXPULSION OF GIRONDINS –Sans-culottes lead street uprising in support of Mountain –Mountain controls France

13 COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY CREATION OF COMMITTEE OF PUBLIC SAFETY –Headed by Robespierre –Given virtually dictatorial powers –Fixed prices, rationed necessities, controlled product quality, and took over closed workshops to stabilize economy –Creates levee en masse and promotions based on merit— turns military situation around –Inaugurated Reign of Terror

14 THE REIGN OF TERROR 1793-JULY 1794 PURPOSE –To secure CPS in power –Eliminate internal threats to revolution (counter- revolutionaries and traitors –Reflection of “idealistic” personality of Robespierre—if you don’t live and breathe the Revolution, you must be an enemy OVER 40,000 PEOPLE KILLED

15 END TO A NIGHTMARE DOWNFALL OF ROBESPIERRE –Executes sans-culotte leaders in March 1794 –Isolated in a country increasingly weary of terror and dictatorship –Shouted down in National Convention, arrested, and executed the next day (July 1794)

16 THERMIDORIAN REACTION DIRECTORY –5 man committee – –Corrupt –Cashes in on military successes of French armies Young generals defeat all enemies and conquer Belgium, the Netherlands, western Germany, and Italy

17 RISE OF NAPOLEON NAPOLEON BONAPARTE –Most famous and successful of young generals –Promoted to general at age 27 in 1796 –Conqueror of Italy and commander of Egyptian campaign INVITED TO JOIN DIRECTORY –Want to cash in on Napoleon’s popularity –USES TROOPS IN PARIS TO OVERTHROW DIRECTORY AND INSTALL NEW, SMALLER ONE WITH HIM IN CONTROL –Coup d’etat –Takes title of First Consul WOULD CONTROL FRANCE FOR NEXT 16 YEARS ( )

18 BENEFITS BETRAYED PRINCIPLES OF REVOLUTION BUT FRENCH PEOPLE DID NOT COMPLAIN WHY? Gave France honest and efficient government for the first time in memory –Centralized administration –Lowered taxes but increased government revenue –Set up public education system –Established unifIed national law code—the Napoleonic Code –Cut crime rate by creating local police forces –Improved internal transportation –Balanced budget

19 NAPOLEON I PROCLAIMED HIMSELF EMPEROR IN 1804 AND BEGAN DYNASTY –TOOK OVER KINGDOM OF NAPLES, POLAND, AND SWEDEN –CONSOLIDATED GERMAN STATES INTO “CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE UNDER FRENCH CONTROL –FORCED RUSSIA, AUSTRIAN EMPIRE, AND PRUSSIA TO BECOME HIS UNWILLING ALLIES ONLY ENGLAND REMAINED OUTSIDE HIS CONTROL

20

21 FIRST FATAL MISTAKE INVASION OF SPAIN –Spanish people launch guerilla war against French occupation –Napoleon cannot decisively defeat guerillas –Continually sends more men, supplies, and money to Spain

22 SECOND FATAL MISTAKE INVASION OF RUSSIA (1812) –Grand Armee (430,000 men) –Russians refuse to fight and instead withdraw, drawing French deeper into Russia –Moscow burned before Napoleon occupies it –Forced to return to Europe in middle of fierce Russian winter and loses 330,000 men to elements and guerillas ENEMIES CLOSE IN FOR THE KILL FORCED TO SURRENDER AND ABDICATE IN APRIL 1814

23 TEMPORARY SETBACK ALLIES INSTALL LOUIS XVIII AS KING –Keeps much of legacy of Revolution NAPOLEON EXILED TO ELBA –Off coast of Italy –Given title of king and two million franc annual allowance

24 END OF THE ROAD ESCAPES ELBA AND RETURNS TO FRANCE –Forces Louis XVIII to flee –The 100 Days DEFEATED AT WATERLOO –By British and Prussian army led by Duke of Wellington –Louis XVIII brought back again EXILED TO ST. HELENA WHERE HE DIES IN 1821

25 SUMMARY French Revolution was not a complete failure –Many of the gains made since 1789 were retained after 1815 Destruction of feudal privileges Expansion of career opportunities based on ability Improved administration Public education system National legal code –Absolute monarchy was gone forever and ideas of liberty and equality had been permanently planted in the French mentality Start of a new era


Download ppt "FRANCE ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION A COMPLETE MESS UNEQUAL AND UNJUST SOCIAL SYSTEM UNDEMOCRATIC POLITICAL SYSTEM INEFFICIENT, CORRUPT, CHAOTIC GOVERNMENT."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google