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Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. An Organizational Framework for the Study of Consumer Behavior Consumer Research Market.

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Presentation on theme: "Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. An Organizational Framework for the Study of Consumer Behavior Consumer Research Market."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. An Organizational Framework for the Study of Consumer Behavior Consumer Research Market Segmentation Perception Learning and Memory Beliefs and Attitudes Motivation and Emotion Personality Self-concept, and Lifestyle Consumer Decision Making Adoption Group Influences Family Influences Personal Influences Social Class Culture and Microculture Diffusion 82

2 II: Memory 83

3 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. II: Consumer Memory Consider and absorb the following statements  the ants ate the sweet jelly that was on the table  the ants were in the kitchen  the ants ate the sweet jelly  the ants in the kitchen ate the jelly that was on the table  the jelly was on the table  the ants in the kitchen ate the jelly 84

4 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Birthday Including February 29th there are 366 possible birthdays in a year A group would need to contain an average of 367 members in order to be absolutely sure that at least two people shared the same birthday How many people on average, would a group contain in order to be 50% certain of two people sharing the same birthday? 85

5 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Recall Close your eyes and recall a scene in which you experienced something pleasurable 86

6 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Memory Memory can be likened to a storage chest in the brain into which we deposit material and from which we can withdraw it later if needed. Occasionally, something gets lost from the “chest,” and then we say we have forgotten.  Would you say this is a reasonably accurate description of how memory works? Yes _____No _____Not Sure _______ 87

7 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Memory Did the following sentences appear on the previous slide  the ants ate the jelly which was on the table  the ants in the kitchen ate the sweet jelly which was on the table  the ants ate the sweet jelly Indicate the level of confidence in your answer on a scale of 1 to 5 88

8 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Goals of this section Be able to explain the differences between short-term and long-term memory Provide business applications for improving consumers’ recall for an advertiser’s marketing communications 89

9 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Memory Memories are not like copies of our past experience on deposit in a memory bank Instead, they are constructed at the time of withdrawal The “materials” used in the reconstruction are logical inferences that fill in missing detail, associated memories that blend in with original memory and other information. 90

10 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Memory Proof  The only sentence that appeared in Q4 was “the ants ate the sweet jelly”  The middle sentence can only be derived by combining separate sentences from the total set of sentences  If you saw yourself in the scene in Q2, then the scene must have been reconstructed. 91

11 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.92 Nike Running Shoes Cost $94 At Wilson Sporting Goods Strange Salesperson Helped me Last fall Weight Feels soft To run in cushioning Brooks New Balance Feelings after A long, hard run Proud RelaxedTired How to run lightly Avoid sore knees Lace shoes tightly Wear cushioned Socks Good value For the money Long-wearing tread Can wear with Jeans, too Color Look good Swoosh symbol Status Brand 92

12 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Memory What did you have for dinner two nights ago? How were able to remember? What was the first thing that leapt to your minds as you read this question? 93

13 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.94 Human and Computer Memory Short Term Memory Long Term MemoryHard Disk Storage Random Access Memory RAM Recall for Thinking Retrieval for Processing Human Brain Personal Computer 94

14 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.95 Properties of long and short term memory 95

15 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Why Information Does Not Get Passed Short Term Memory Rehearsal Failure Make a list of all the advertisements we have shown so far Implications on advertisements 96

16 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. How Information Gets Stored in Long Term Memory 1. Organization Principle of Long-term Memory 2. The Encoding-specificity Principle of Long- term Memory 3. The Association Principle of Long-term Memory 4. Implicit Memory 97

17 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. 1. Organization Principle of Long-term Memory Make a list of items you would take out of your house if it caught on fire. 98

18 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. 1. Organization Principle of Long-term Memory - continued Make a list of items you would take with you on vacation to a beach. 99

19 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.100 LEVELS OF ABSTRACTION IN DESSERT CATEGORIES DESSERT Fattening DessertNonfattening Dessert SUPERORDINATE LEVEL BASIC LEVEL SUBORDINATE LEVEL Pie Ice Cream Cake Fruit Yogurt Low-fat Ice Cream 100

20 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.101 Memory Performance 100% 50% 0% Organized List Random List

21 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. 1. Organization Principle of Long-term Memory – continued Process of grouping individual pieces of information into larger units (e.g., categories) on the basis of a specific relationship between the pieces Implications: 102

22 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. 2. The Encoding-Specificity Principle of Long-term Memory - continued Related pieces of information help recall memory  Links help improve activation of the “nodes” Any marketing communication that places its spokesperson in both its advertising and on its package can recall 103

23 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.104

24 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.105

25 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. 2. The Encoding-Specificity Principle of Long-term Memory - continued Context in which information learned 106

26 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. The encoding-specificity principle wet retrieval context dry retrieval context Dry Encoding Context Wet Encoding Context 100% 0% Probability of retrieval 107

27 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. 3. The Association Principle of Long-term Memory At the center of a blank sheet of paper, write the name Cornell PDP. Nearby, write your first association to the product and draw a line between the two. Then write your next association, linking the second and third, and so forth, until your paper is full. See how far a field the associations go. 108

28 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.109

29 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. 3. The Association Principle of Long-term Memory - continued Leads to importance of priming Google words Ask guests to perform the exercise you just completed 110

30 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Exercise: Association Principle Recently, when it was discovered that a large supplier of hamburger meat to various restaurants around the United States had shipped tons of contaminated beef, consumers everywhere were afraid to eat hamburger. The timing was especially bad for restaurants and supermarkets because the scare took place during the summer – the season when Americans are most likely to be grilling and ordering hamburgers frequently. If you were the owner or franchiser of a restaurant whose most popular food items included various types of hamburgers, what steps might you have taken to combat marketplace rumors about the meat your served? 111

31 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Exercise Contrary to popular opinion, refuting a rumor is not the best way to restore a company’s image. This is because refuting the rumor keeps the negative linkages in the consumer’s associative network active. A better solution is to create new, positive associative links to the brand that can interfere with the negative links 112

32 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.113 The association principle: Associative inference Evaluations Rumor Rumor plus Rumor plus No Rumor Alone Refutation Associative Control Interference 113

33 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Implicit Memory Automatic or an unconscious form of memory In daily life, people rely on implicit memory everyday in the form of procedural memory (memory of how to do things – scripts) Leads to illusion of truth  The illusion-of-truth effect states that a person is more likely to believe a familiar statement than an unfamiliar one 114

34 Classical and Operant Conditioning Building Implicit Memory Classical Operant Order of Stimulus Learning 115

35 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning involves forming an association between two objects.  The first object is an unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned stimulus leads to an automatic unconditioned response (e.g. food leading to salivation).  The second object is a conditioned stimulus. 116

36 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Classical Conditioning Once this pairing is learned, the conditioned stimulus will lead to a conditional response that is identical to the unconditioned response 117

37 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.118 Classical conditioning in advertising Positive Stimulus (music, scenery, people, animals) Advertised Brand (paired with positive unconditioned response) Positive Affect Positive Affect (toward brand) 118

38 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.119 Polar bears were considered neutral before pairing them with Coca-Cola 119

39 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.120

40 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Non Advertising Contexts Credit card stimulus and spending Credit cards and tipping 121

41 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Operant Conditioning Positive reinforcement Negative reinforcement Continuous reinforcement Partial reinforcement Shaping 122

42 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D.123 TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT EVENT BEHAVIOR POSITIVE BEHAVIOR NEGATIVE BEHAVIOR CONDITION APPLIED CONDITION REMOVED Positive Reinforcement Effect: Positive event Strengthens responses Preceding occurrence. Learning Process: consumer learns to perform responses that produce positive outcome. Extinction Effect: Removal of positive event weakens responses preceding occurrence. Learning Process: Consumer learns that responses no longer produce positive outcome. Punishment Effect: Negative event weakens responses that are followed by negative outcome. Learning Process: Consumer Learns not to perform responses leading to punishment. Negative Reinforcement Effect: Removal of negative event strengthens responses that allow avoidance of negative outcome. Learning Process: Consumer Learns to perform responses that Allow him or her to avoid negative outcome Strengthens Connections Weaker Connections 123

43 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Commercial Starbucks Rolling Stones 124

44 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. Question How might marketers for a chain of resorts like Club Med use partial reinforcement to get vacationers to stay at their resorts? How are frequent guest programs related to this topic? 125

45 Consumer Attitudes and Behaviors (2008) (c) Stowe Shoemaker, Ph.D. An Organizational Framework for the Study of Consumer Behavior Consumer Research Market Segmentation Perception Learning and Memory Beliefs and Attitudes Motivation and Emotion Personality Self-concept, and Lifestyle Consumer Decision Making Adoption Group Influences Family Influences Personal Influences Social Class Culture and Microculture Diffusion 126


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