Presentation on theme: "Persuasive Techniques How advertising influences consumers."— Presentation transcript:
Persuasive Techniques How advertising influences consumers
Virginia English SOLs 6.2The student will listen critically and express opinions in oral presentations. Distinguish between fact and opinion. Compare and contrast viewpoints. Present a convincing argument. 7.3The student will describe persuasive messages in nonprint media, including television, radio, and video. Identify persuasive technique used. Distinguish between fact and opinion. Describe how word choice conveys viewpoint. 8.3 The student will analyze mass media messages. Evaluate the persuasive technique being used. Describe the possible cause-effect relationships between mass media coverage and public opinion trends. Evaluate sources, including advertisements, editorials, and feature stories, for relationships between intent and factual content.
What is persuasion? An attempt to change opinions and attitudes An attempt to change your behavior EX.: politicians, advertisements, parents. friends
Sources of Persuasion T.V. Radio Internet Magazine Snail mail advertisements People Billboards……. And more
Persuasion & Propaganda Both attempt to change your thought process or feelings to cause a change in behavior (using a change in consumption of goods or services)
Persuasion vs. Propaganda Propaganda is defined as the spreading of ideas, information, or rumor for the purpose of helping or injuring an institution, a cause, or a person. Persuasion is defined as a form of social influence, the act of influencing the mind by arguments or reasons offered, communication intended to induce belief or action.
Glittering Generality Offering general information or description that uses words like New! Improved! Powerful! Glittering generalities play to emotions without making any commitments or putting the speaker in a position where they may be challenged or criticized.
Exaggeration Making something seem better or more important than it is; generalizations that can’t be backed up by facts. “Brand X clothing makes you look 20 pounds lighter and 20 years younger”
Loaded Words/Slanted Words Words that tend to cause favorable or unfavorable reactions such as “home” and “family”, that you probably have strong feelings about. Loaded words like “dishonest” and ‘wasteful” can be used to attack the competition since people don’t like dishonesty and waste. Carefully chosen words to evoke a particular feeling such as “sweat” vs. “perspiration” or “frugal” vs. “cheap” can influence the audience.
Repetition Repeating a name, slogan or product over and over in the same advertisement or campaign; it seems to become more believable the more times it is used. Hitler was a master at this game.
Bandwagon/Group Appeal Convincing us to accept someone or something because of its popularity. “All the kids on the block wear X brand jeans”. Everybody’s buying it and if you don’t, you’ll be left out. “Everybody else’s parents are letting them go.”
Expert Testimony/Testimonial Famous people or someone you respect or like says the product is good and advertises the product.
Citing Statistics, facts and figures Using tests, statistics or information that sounds “scientific” to prove that one product or person is better than another “Four out of five dentists recommend brand X toothpaste.” (How many total dentists were polled? Just 5?) Fails to give important data about the dentists, such as if they are paid to promote band X.
Citing Statistics, facts and figures “85% of Americans polled believe this candidate will do a better job – can they all be wrong?” (Which Americans were polled? Her immediate family?) “200 doctors recommend brand X…” (but maybe 400 doctors prefer brand Z.)
Vague Comparisons Comparing a product or person to another, without providing the other half of the comparison. “Brand X cleans better.” (Better than what? Soot and dirt?) “Candidate X – the best choice.” (Best for whom? Himself?)
Buzz Words Words that have suddenly become popular with consumers… words like “pure”…”all natural”… Advertisers may also use buzz words from a particular industry to suggest to the consumer that they are part of the “in crowd”.
Transference Suggesting that buying product X is associated with positive situations, people or events. May feature symbols such as an American flag Advertisements for alcohol use pictures where people are having a good time, not pictures of drunks in an alley or people fighting or being taken advantage of.
Snob Appeal /Transference Suggesting that association with a person or product can make you better than average or part of an elite group. May feature pictures of successful people in luxurious settings.
Name Calling Calling a product or person a negative name like “liar” or using adjectives like flimsy, poor quality or slow when talking about the competition, without providing proof.
Plain Folks People just like you, are buying it, so why don’t you? Picture in the ad will feature “down home” kind of folks, like you. An ordinary looking family sits together at a table to eat brand X or play with brand Z.
Plain Folks Politicians show pictures of themselves playing with a dog or with their children, wearing casual clothing.
Emotional Appeals/ Hidden Fears Advertisers scare consumers into buying the product. They imply that something awful will happen if you fail to buy their product. They may use pictures to illustrate negative consequences. “Don’t let this (terrible thing) happen to you.” OR “Don’t be embarrassed by body odor. Buy Brand X”
Emotional Appeals/ Hidden Fears Buy a certain toothpaste or breath mint to avoid rejection. Often advertisers prey on the insecurity of not knowing you have a problem that is effecting you in a negative manner for example “Even your best friend won’t tell you…”
Emotional Appeals/ Flattery Appealing to consumers with flattery. For example: an advertiser will tell consumers the they demonstrate good sense or wisdom if they buy the product. “Brand X is the choice of the discerning shopper” Or “Smart shoppers choose Brand X”
Free or Bargain A speaker suggests that consumers can get something for nothing or almost nothing.
Testimonial Using a famous person or an expert to convince consumers to buy product X or support a particular candidate or cause. “Tiger Woods chooses Nike.” or “Got Milk?”
Consumer questions about facts Before buying ask yourself these questions Is the evidence sufficient in volume? (Is there enough evidence to present a strong or indisputable case.?) Is the evidence trustworthy? (Does it come from reliable, informed sources?) Is the evidence verifiable? (Can you corroborate it through other sources.)
Consumer questions about experts Is the expert a current authority on the specific subject in question? (Tiger Woods may know golf, but does he know toothpaste or life insurance?) How is the expert viewed by their peers? Is he/she respected in the field? Is the expert associated with reputable organizations? How free of bias is the expert?
Additional resources Read Write Think has a terrific lesson plan with many printable handouts at http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesso n_view.asp?id=1166 http://www.readwritethink.org/lessons/lesso n_view.asp?id=1166 PBS lesson plan http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/teachers /lessonplans/october01/warads/ http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/teachers /lessonplans/october01/warads/