2 Overview of I-9 LawsThe I-9 laws require employers to verify the identity and employment eligibility of every worker hired after November 6, 1986.Employers are liable for “knowingly” hiring or continuing to employ unauthorized aliens even if the I-9 form is properly completed.Sanctions can include civil and criminal liability.
3 BASIC PAPERWORK I-9 REQUIREMENTS Properly complete I-9 for every new hire since November 6, 1986
4 FORM I-9 U.S. Department of Justice OMB No. 1115-0136 Immigration and Naturalization Service Employment Eligibility VerificationPlease read instructions carefully before completing this form. The instructions must be available during completion of this form. ANTI-DISCRIMINATION NOTICE. It is illegal to discriminate against work eligible individuals. Employers CANNOT specify which document(s) they will accept from an employee. The refusal to hire individuals because of a future expiration date may also constitute illegal discrimination.Section 1. Employee Information and Verification. To be completed and signed by employee at the time employment beginsPrint Name: Last First Middle Initial Maiden NameAddress (Street Name and Number) Apt. # Date of Birth (month/day/year)City State Zip Code Social Security #Employee’s Signature Date (month/day/year)I am aware that federal law provides for imprisonment and/or fines for false statements or use of false documents in connection with the completion of this form.I attest, under penalty of perjury, that I am (check one of the following):A citizen or national of the United StatesA Lawful Permanent Resident (Alien # A_____________________An alien authorized to work until _____ / _____ / _____(Alien # or Admission # ___________________________________Preparer and/or Translator Certification. (To be completed and signed if Section 1 is prepared by a person other than the employee.) I attest, under penalty of perjury, that I have assisted in the completion of this form and that to the best of my knowledge the information is true and correct.Preparer’s/Translator’s Signature Print NameAddress (Street Name and Number, City, State, Zip Code) Date (month/day/year)
5 TIPS FOR SECTION 1Section 1 must be completed by employee on or before first day of hireInsure that employee checks box, and signs and dates the formIf employee checks box 2, A # must be enteredIf employee checks box 3, expiration date and A# or I-94 number must be entered
6 MOST COMMON ERRORS ON SECTION 1 Attestation Box not checked“A” number or work authorization date is missingAttestation date is not completedIdentification information missingIncorrect boxes checked
7 FORM I-9 SECTION 2Section 2. Employer Review and Verification. To be completed and signed by employer. Examine on document from List A OR examine one document from List B and on from List C as listed on the reverse side of this form and record the title, number and expiration date, if any, of the document(s)List A OR List B AND List CDocument title: _________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________Issuing authority: ________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________Document #: ___________________________ ______________________________ ___________________________Expiration Date (if any): ___ / ___ / ___ ___ / ___ / ___ ___ / ___ / ___Document #: ___________________________Expiration Date (if any): ___ / ___ / ___CERTIFICATION - I attest, under penalty of perjury, that I have examined the document(s) presented by the above-named employee, that the above-listed document(s) appear to be genuine and to relate to the employee named, that the employee began employment on (month/day/year) ____ / ____ / ____ and that to the best of my knowledge the employee is eligible to work in the United States. (State employment agencies may omit the date the employee began employment.)Signature of Employer or Authorized Representative Print Name TitleBusiness or Organization Name Address (Street Name and Number, City, State, Zip Code) Date (month/day/year)
8 TIPS FOR SECTION 2Section 2 must be completed by company representative within 3 business days of hireVerification of IDENTITY and WORK AUTHORIZATIONCompany representative must review ORIGINAL documentsAttach copies of documents presented to the I-9
9 MOST COMMON ERRORS ON SECTION 2 Employer under-documents or over-documents I-9Employer accepts faxed copies of documentsEmployer lists US visa instead of I-94 number in List ASignature and date of company rep. is missingEmployer accepts receipt for EAD extension
10 FORM I-9 – SECTION 3Section 3. Updating and Reverification. To be completed and signed by employer.A. New Name (if applicable) B. Date of rehire (month/day/year) (if applicable)C. If employee’s previous grant of work authorization has expired, provide the information below for the document that establishes current employment eligibility.Document Title: _________________________ Document #: __________________ Expiration Date (if any): ____ / ____ / ____I attest, under penalty of perjury, that to the best of my knowledge, this employee is eligible to work in the United States, and if the employee presented document(s), the document(s) I have examined appear to be genuine and to relate to the individual.Signature of Employer or Authorized Representative Date (month/day/year)Form I-9 (Rev ) N
11 TIPS FOR SECTION 3 What does NOT need to be reverified? Green cards (i.e., permanent resident cards or I-551 resident alien cards)Driver’s license and other identity documentsU.S. Passports
12 MOST COMMON ERRORS ON SECTION 3 Reverification not completed in a timely mannerDocument provided was not acceptableOver-documentation
13 WHO TO I-9 I-9 employees, not independent contractors Do not I-9 employees working outside the United States or its territoriesAll employees in the US, even if on payroll abroadI-9 temporary and part time employees
14 CONTRACTORS & TEMPORARY AGENCIES No I-9 form is needed for true independent contractorsIf you contract with a temporary agency for personnel, follow the following guidelines:Clearly identifying the agency as the “employer”Indicate the agency will comply with State and Federal requirements including, but not limited to, proper I-9 completion and maintenance.Include an indemnification clauseEntering into a contract with “knowledge” of unlawful status can remove the independent contractor protection.
15 RECEIPT RULE: Employee must already have work authorization May only accept receipt for replacement document that was lost, stolen, or damagedMay not accept receipt for extension of EADMust see an original document within 90 days of hire (docket this date)
16 AUTHORIZING AN AGENT TO COMPLETE AN I-9 An employer may delegate the authority to complete an I-9The employer retains the liability for errorsSelect someone responsibleProvide written guidance and contact information
17 REHIRING No I-9 needed if employee is “continuing to be employed” Leave of absence, disability, vacation, etcPromotion or demotionStrike, temporarily laid offDisciplinary suspensionTransfer between one distinct unit of employer to anotherI-9s may be reused if completed within 3 years of date of rehire (new I-9 recommended)
18 MERGER & ACQUISITION New I-9s not required if “successor in interest”: Change in locationEmploys some or all of a previous employers workforce in merger, acquisition or sale of stock or assetsMulti-employer association with the same collective bargaining agreement.If new company is successor in interest, then it assumes the liabilities for the old I-9s.To avoid “liability” must complete new I-9s
19 I-9 Paperwork Penalties Penalty: $100 - $1,100 per I-9 for mistakes or omissions
20 What is Knowledge? Actual Knowledge Constructive Knowledge Actual knowledge includes knowledge of supervisors at companyConstructive KnowledgeConstructive knowledge includes circumstances where the company "should have known“
21 Actual KnowledgeExample: Employee states that he has a false employment document.Even if the employer completes the I-9 employment eligibility verification procedure properly, it will still be subject to penalties if it is has knowledge of the unauthorized status of the employee.
22 Constructive Knowledge Knowledge not limited to actual knowledgeIf employer has knowledge that would lead a reasonable person to believe that an individual is not authorized to work, the employer is under a duty to investigate.Example: Employee presents a green card during I-9 verification but employee later requests company to sponsor him.
23 INS Rules – 8 CFR § 274a(1)An employer is deemed to have knowledge if:Form I-9 not completed in good faithContinues to employ alien after work auth expiredPossesses information that alien not auth to workActs with reckless and wanton disregardKnowledge cannot be inferred from:Employee’s foreign appearance or accentRumor or hearsay
24 Failure to Verify/Reverify Employer has constructive knowledge when:Employer failed to complete I-9 form and employer later found to be unauthorized. U.S. v. American Terrazzo Corp, 6 OCAHO 91 (1989).Employer failed to properly complete I-9 form. U.S. v. Walden Station Inc., 8 OCAHO 1053 (2000).Employer failed to reverify work authorization of employee with time-limited work authorization. U.S. v. China Wok Rest., 4 OCAHO 608 (1994).
25 INS (ICE) Notification Action is required when employer is informed by INS (ICE) that employee is illegal alien.Court held that employer had a duty to act when INS verbally provided the employer with information that various alien registration numbers did not match INS records. Mester Manufacturing v. INS, 879 F.2d 561 (9th Cir. 1989).Irrelevant by what means an employer gains knowledge from the INS (ICE).
26 Acting in Reckless and Wanton Manner INS infers knowledge if employer acts with reckless and wanton disregard for legal consequences of permitting another individual to introduce an unauthorized worker into workforce.Employer which fails to make any effort to satisfy itself that the individual is authorized to work is liable.
27 Knowledge of Employees is Imputed to the Employer Employer is chargeable with, and bound by, the knowledge of its agents if agent acting within scope of his authority.Example: Manager told by employee that he is in the U.S. unlawfully. Knowledge of manager regarding illegal status may be imputed to the company.Foreign student tracking system requires all post-secondary schools and exchange visitor programs to provide information to INS on F, J and M students. (The info includes name, address, & status of alien; date visa was issued; date NIV status was changed or extended; academic status of alien; any disciplinary action against alien due to conviction of a crime.)
28 Timeliness of Reverification Once employer has knowledge, an employer must exercise due care to verify that alien is authorized to work.Courts have held that “due care” is met if employer immediately suspends employee and asks him/her to obtain proof of employment eligibility. If employee fails to present such documentation within a reasonable time, employee should be terminated.Foreign student tracking system requires all post-secondary schools and exchange visitor programs to provide information to INS on F, J and M students. (The info includes name, address, & status of alien; date visa was issued; date NIV status was changed or extended; academic status of alien; any disciplinary action against alien due to conviction of a crime.)
29 Civil Penalties for Hiring Violations First offense: Civil fine of $250 to $2,000 per unauthorized workerSecond offense: Civil fine of $2,000 to $5,000 per unauthorized workerThird or more: Civil fine of $3,000 to $10,000 per unauthorized workerDebarment from government contracts
30 Criminal Liability for “Pattern and Practice” Regular, repeated and intentional activities to hire/continue to hire illegal aliens can be punished criminally.“Pattern or practice”: In addition to civil penalties, criminal penalties of up to $3,000 per worker and up to six (6) months imprisonment
32 Personal Liability for Actions INS defines the term “employer” to include a person or entity, including an agent or anyone acting directly or indirectly in the interest of an employer.Sanctions may be extended beyond the employing entity, including corporate officers.
33 Common Problems and Strategies Employee comes to employer with new SSN that is different than one employer was given at time original I-9 completed.
34 Common Problems and Strategies (cont.) An employee informs employer that another worker is an “illegal”Employer cannot make further inquiry about employment eligibility or request additional documents from employee based on mere hearsay and rumor.IRCA does not require further inquiry in these circumstances.
35 Common Problems and Strategies (cont.) Supervisor recognizes workers who were included in a prior INS raid
36 Common Problems and Strategies (cont.) During a social engagement outside of the company, supervisor learns that employee is illegally in the U.S.
37 OTHER PENALTIES Civil liability for document fraud Debarment from government contracts
39 BASIC I-9 DISCRIMINATION VIOLATIONS Document AbuseCitizenship Status Discrimination (distinguished from National Origin Discrimination)Retaliation
40 DOCUMENT ABUSE May not ask for more or different documents May not refuse to accept valid documents presentedShould not specify which documents will be acceptablePenalty: $100 - $1,000
41 CITIZENSHIP STATUS DISCRIMINATION May not treat persons in the "PROTECTED CLASS" differently for purposes of hiring or firing.Penalty: $2,000, $5,000, $10,000
42 “PROTECTED CLASS” INCLUDES U.S. Citizens or NationalsPermanent ResidentsRefugeesAsyleesTemporary Residents under the legalization program (Special Agricultural Worker or amnesty applicant)
43 I-9 "PROTECTED CLASS" DOES NOT INCLUDE: Non-Immigrants Such As:- F-1- J-1- H-1Asylum ApplicantsIllegal Aliens
44 NO DISCRIMINATION IF REQUIRED BY: LawRegulationExecutive OrderGovernment ContractAs Determined By Attorney General
45 RECRUITING ISSUES How do I identify who needs a visa? What questions can I ask?
46 OFFER GUIDELINESDo not discriminate against members of “protected class”Do not treat members of “protected class” differently from one anotherUse written questionnaire rather than verbal questions
47 WHAT TO ASK: SAMPLE FORMAT #1 Are you legally authorized to work in the United States? yes ____ no _____Will you now or in the future require sponsorship for employment visa status (e.g., H-1B visa status?) yes ____ no _____
48 WHAT TO ASK: SAMPLE FORMAT #2 Are you one of the following:Citizen or National of the United States,Lawful Permanent Resident,Refugee,Asylee, orTemporary Resident (does not include non-immigrant visas such as F-1, J-1, H-1,etc.) yes____ no____
49 WHAT TO ASK: SAMPLE FORMAT #2 (cont.) If employer is willing to consider sponsoring applicant outside “Protected Class”, then you may also ask, “If your answer was ‘no’, do you have authorization to work, and if so, please explain”