Presentation on theme: "THE ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS OF EUROPE What is an Enlightened Despot Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis."— Presentation transcript:
THE ENLIGHTENED DESPOTS OF EUROPE
What is an Enlightened Despot Enlightened monarchs embraced the principles of the Enlightenment, especially its emphasis upon rationality, and applied them to their territories. They tended to allowrationality – religious toleration, –freedom of speech – the press – the right to hold private property. Most fostered the arts, sciences, and education
Simplified laws Tried to improve education Unfortunately their motivation for undertaking such changes was to make their countries and their power over their countries stronger
FREDERICK THE GREAT - Frederick the Great of Prussia Tight control Admired Voltaire Religious tolerance Make Gov’t more efficient Servant of the State
Frederick the Great of Prussia (r ) ► – ► Succeeded his father, Frederick William I (the “Soldier King”). ► He saw himself as the “First Servant of the State.”
Joseph II of Austria (r ) ► – ► His mother was Maria Theresa.
JOSEPH II OF HAPSBURG Most radical despot Succeeds Maria Theresa Student of enlightenment Uses middle class instead of nobles Political and legal reforms Religious toleration No censorship Abolished serfdom Revolutionary monarch
Habsburg Family Crest
Catherine the Great (r ) ► German Princess Sophie Friederike Auguste of Anhalt-Zerbst. ► – 1796.
CATHERINE THE GREAT Russia empress 1762 Exchanged letters with Voltaire and Diderot Praised Voltaire Experimented with enlightened ideas Reformed laws Nobles Charter of Rights Gave up no power Expanded empire
1767: Catherine summons the Legislative Commission. 1767: Catherine summons the Legislative Commission : Russo-Turkish War : Pugachev Rebellion is suppressed : Pugachev Rebellion is suppressed. 1772: First partition of Poland. 1772: First partition of Poland. 1785: Charter of Nobility. 1785: Charter of Nobility. 1793: Second partition of Poland. 1793: Second partition of Poland. 1795: Third partition of Poland. 1795: Third partition of Poland. Reformer? OR Despot?
She died while attempting an unusual practice with a horse – Not true – probably started by the French elite soon after she died as a way to mar her reputation. She died on the toilet – and her body was so bloated that she shattered the toilet – this more recent rumor that emerged also as an attempt to humiliate, and mar her reputation.
Partition of Poland Allows for territorial expansion, as well increase in power of the leaders Poland split between Russia, Prussia and Austria 1 st partition takes place in 1772 All three take a piece By 1795 all of Poland is absorbed by Big 3 and Poland is no more
The Partitions of Poland
Russian Expansionism in the Late 18c
ARTS AND LITERATURE Baroque- large colorful and exciting Rembrandt van Rijn - Dutch painter –No frills classical painter, greatest ever Bach wrote beautiful religious works- Lutheran Handel Messiah Mozart- Marriage of Figaro, The Magic Flute ( written about the enlightenment) Daniel Defoe “Robinson Crusoe”
ARTIST OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT Rembrandt Daniel Defoe Mozart Handel
Effects of the Enlightenment Used enlightened ideas to increase power More humane laws and practice helped populations become more productive Each wanted greater state power but went about getting it in different ways