Presentation on theme: " European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 in search of the lucrative spice trade."— Presentation transcript:
European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 in search of the lucrative spice trade. Just over a century later, the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, with the first English trading post set up in 1612. Over the course of the 17th and early 18th centuries, the British defeated the Portuguese and Dutch militarily, and established themselves firmly in India.
In 1835 English was made the official language of instruction in India's schools. Western-educated Hindu elites sought to rid Hinduism of controversial social practices, including the “varna” caste system, child marriage, and sati. (a recently widowed woman would immolate herself on her husbands Pyre Literary and debating societies established in Calcutta and Bombay (Mumbai) became forums for open political discourse.
Even while these modernizing trends influenced Indian society, many Indians increasingly despised British rule. The Indian rebellion of 1857 was a large-scale rebellion in northern and central India against the British East India Company's rule. (British Gov’t gave the ruling power to the company) Rumors of undoing the caste system upset many of the top officials, and a rumor of being forced to become Christian also put everyone on the edge. The final spark was provided by the rumored use of tallow (from cows) and lard (pig fat) in the newly introduced rifle cartridges. Soldiers had to bite the cartridges with their teeth before loading them into their rifles, and the reported presence of cow and pig fat was religiously offensive to both Hindu and Muslim soldiers.
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major turning point in the history of modern India. Under the Government of India Act 1858, the Company was deprived of its involvement in ruling India, with its territory being transferred to the direct authority of the British government.
The decades following the Rebellion was a period of growing political awareness, manifestation of Indian public opinion, and emergence of Indian leadership at both national and provincial levels.
World War I began with an unprecedented outpouring of love and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership, contrary to initial British fears of an Indian revolt. India contributed massively to the British war effort by providing men and resources.
the Government of India Act 1919, which introduced the principle of a dual mode of administration, in which both elected Indian legislators and appointed British officials shared power.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi had been a prominent leader of the Indian nationalist movement in South Africa, and had been a vocal opponent of basic discrimination and abusive labor treatment as well as suppressive police control. During protests, Gandhi had perfected the concept of satyagraha, (non-violent resistance)satyagraha
In the aftermath of World War I, high casualty rates, soaring inflation compounded by heavy taxation, a widespread influenza epidemic and the disruption of trade during the war escalated human suffering in India. The pre-war nationalist movement revived as moderate and extremist groups within the Congress submerged their differences in order to stand as a unified front. (beginning of Muslim Hindu split) They argued their enormous services to the British Empire during the war demanded a reward, and demonstrated the Indian capacity for self-rule.
The British themselves adopted a "carrot and stick" approach in recognition of India's support during the war and in response to renewed nationalist demands. By August 1917, Britain moves to involve Indian legislation in all decisions The means of achieving the proposed measure were later enshrined in the Government of India Act 1919, which introduced the principle of a dual mode of administration, in which both elected Indian legislators and appointed British officials shared power. A number of non-controversial or "transferred" portfolios, such as agriculture, local government, health, education, and public works, were handed over to Indians, while more sensitive matters such as finance, taxation, and maintaining law and order were retained by the provincial British administrators.
Civil unrest continues, calls for independence rise. Split between Hindu’s and Muslims also intensifies
The Quit India Movement or the August Movement was a civil disobedience movement in India launched on 9 August 1942 in response to Gandhi's call for immediate independence of India and against sending Indians to World War II. He asked all teachers to leave their schools, and other Indians to leave their respective jobs and take part in this movement. Due to Gandhi's political influence, his request was followed by a massive proportion of the population.
On 3 June 1947, Viscount Louis Mountbatten, the last British Governor-General of India, announced the partitioning of British India into India and Pakistan. With the speedy passage through the British Parliament of the Indian Independence Act 1947, at 11:57 on 14 August 1947 Pakistan was declared a separate nation, and at 12:02, just after midnight, on 15 August 1947, India also became an independent nation. Violent clashes between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims followed as each group moved toward the newly established countries
Conflicts continue Distrust is rampant especially in Kashmir “Terror In Mumbai”