Presentation on theme: "Y1.U5.1 Equipment. Receiving and Storing Receiving Receiving is the first step in the flow of food Items are checked for quality and quantity Storing."— Presentation transcript:
Receiving and Storing Receiving Receiving is the first step in the flow of food Items are checked for quality and quantity Storing Dry goods must be stored at least 6” off the floor Perishable goods are stored in refrigerators and freezers
Receiving Receiving Table/area: weigh, inspect check delivered items. Scales: weigh items. Utility cart: used to carry foods to storage areas.
Storing Shelving: stainless steel, chrome, epoxy. Often wire for airflow. Reach-in refrigerator/freezer: 1, 2, or 3 internal compartments. Walk-in refrigerator/freezer: built in. Refrigerator: 32 to 42°F. Freezer: -10 to 10°F
Pre-preparation Equipment Includes: Knives Hand tools and small equipment Measuring utensils Pots and pans
Knife Most widely used piece of kitchen equipment Each knife is designed for a specific purpose Good knives are made of stainless steal- durable, stays sharp Forged blade: made from a single piece of metal, dropped in a mold, and hammered into shape Stamped blade: made by cutting blade shaped pieces from sheets of milled steel
Knife Parts Tip/ Point Detail work: paring, trimming, peeling. Spine: The top, non-cutting edge of the blade. Heel: Widest, thickest part of blade. Cuts through large, tough, or hard food. Bolster: Located at heel, where the blade meets handle. Tang: Metal that continues from blade through handle. Full or partial. Cutting edge: Bottom of blade between tip and heel. Flat ground/tapered: both sides taper to a “v” shape. Serrated: shaped into a row of teeth. Hollow ground: very sharp. Granton: ovals ground into side. Single side: sharpened on 1 side. Scales: Riveted to tang to create handle. Rivets: Hold handle to tang. Handle: Made of various materials. Butt: End of the handle.
Knives Boning knife: Usually 6”, thin, flexible. Used to separate raw meat from bone. Butcher knife: Scimitar, Used to fabricate raw meat, 6-14”. Butter knife: Small knife with blunt edge for spreading butter, cream cheese.
Knives Chef’s/French knife: All-purpose knife used for chopping, slicing, mincing all types of food. 8-14”, tapers to a point at the tip. Cheese knife: Thin, sometimes off-set, granton, holes. Clam knife: Short, blunt point. Used to shuck, open clams. Unlike oyster knife, has a very sharp edge.
Knives Cleaver: Heavy rectangular knife, cuts through all types of foods, cuts through bones. Dao: (cai dao). Chinese cleaver, or vegetable knife. Light, multi-purpose, carbon steel. Deli knife: Serrated and often off-set. 8”. Used to slice thick sandwiches.
Knives Fillet knife: Thin. flexible blade. Used to fillet fish. 6- 8”. Lettuce knife: Plastic serrated knife (prevent brown edges). Oyster knife: Short, stubby, pointed knife for shucking oysters.
Knives Paring knife: Small, sharp, 2-4”. Used to peel, trim and pare vegetables. Santoku knife: General purpose, 5-7”. Japanese. Three virtues: slicing, dicing, mincing. Sheepsfoot blade curving 60° to point. Well balanced. Serrated slicer: Long, thin, serrated. Used to cut breads, cakes, tomato, delicate.
Knives Slicer: Long, thin 12-14”. Often granton. Used to slice cooked meats. Steak knife: Sharp, usually serrated table knife for cutting steak. Tourné: Short (like paring), curved bird’s beak blade. Used for tourné cuts (7 sided football shape).
Knives Utility knife: All-purpose. 6-8”. Vegetable peeler: Sharp, used for peeling vegetables. Technically not a knife.
Knife Care Sharpening Sharp is safe. Sharpening removes metal from the blade. Mise: Collect knives, stone, oil or water, damp cloth or mat, steel Place cloth on stone or mat Lubricate At a 20° angle run blade across stone as necessary, equally on both sides from coarse to fine Carefully ipe blade clean and hone at 20°.
Knife Care Honing Removes microscopic burrs and returns convex shape Run the knife along the steel at a 20° angle, alternating sides Steel: long metal rod (or oval) that is lightly grooved and magnetized Ceramic steel: ceramic rod. Diamond steel: encrusted with diamond dust. Do not use on ceramic knives
Knife Handling Practices - Safety Keep knives sharp (less force) Never touch blade Use only for intended purpose Damp cloth under cutting board If interruption occurs stop cutting and place knife on a secure, flat surface
Knife Handling Practices NEVER leave soaking under water—wash separately Never try catch falling knife, move out of way, verbally warn Carry knives with cutting edge slightly away from body To pass knife place it down on a sanitized surface, let other person pick it up by handle Store knives properly, do not leave laying around
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Bench scraper: Rigid, stainless steel, square, blunt blade used to scrape material off a table and cut/portion dough. Bowl scraper: Flexible piece of rubber or plastic, usually curved, used to scrape product from a bowl Can Opener: Mounted on a table, used to open large cans.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Channel knife: Used to cut grooves in vegetables or “twists” from fruits. Cheesecloth: Light fine mesh gauze used to strain stock, custard, cheese curd; bundling herbs. China cap: Perforated cone shaped strainer.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Chinois: Fine mesh cone shaped strainer. Colander: Perforated bowl shaped strainer. Cook’s fork: Kitchen fork, two long pointed tines. Check braised meat for doneness, steady meat to slice. Do not pierce dry-cooked meats
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Corer: Remove core of apple or pear. Fish scaler: Remove scales from fish. Food mill: Purée foods to various consistency with various detachable plates.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Funnel: Pour liquid from a larger to a smaller container. Grater: Grate cheeses, carrots, potatoes; various size holes. Kitchen shears: Strong scissors. Cut twine, grapes into small clusters, cartilage.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Parisienne scoop: Melon baller, cuts ball shapes from soft fruits and vegetables. Pastry bag: Canvas, plastic, nylon. Pipe frosting, creams, puréed food using various pastry tips. Pastry brush: Brush egg wash, melted butter, glazes and other liquids on baked goods, meats etc.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Pie server: shaped, often off-set, to serve slices of pie/quiche. Piping tools: Bags, tips, couplers, presses, flower nails. Pizza cutter: Round blade to cit pizza, rolled out dough.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Ricer: Perforated hopper and levered plate pressing cooked food into fluffy rice-like pieces. Rolling pin: Cylinder, wood/plastic/metal/glass, handled/dowel-type, roll out pastry/dough. Sandwich spreader: Short, stubby spatula to spread sandwich fillings and condiments.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Skimmer: Perforated flat head to remove foam, remove solid ingredients from liquids. Also in mesh. Sieve: Mesh basket, sift flour, strain. Spatula, offset, icing: Short to long, flexible, round tip. Used to frost and ice, level dry ingredients.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Spatula, offset, metal: Hamburger turner. Wide chisel-set blade with short handle to turn/flip foods. Spatula, rubber: Long handle, flat paddle rubber-like end. Folding, scrape sides of bowls. Look for high heat type. Spatula, straight: Depending on width, icing or flipping.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Spoons, kitchen: long handle, solid, perforated, slotted. Spider: Long handle, open mesh, shallow basket, strainer. Strainer: Perforated, mesh, various shapes/sizes, strain pasta/veg./etc.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Tamis: Drum-shaped strainer, various mesh sizes. Strain or purée. Tongs: Spring-loaded scissor-like utensil for picking up solid food. Can be used as a reamer. Wire whip: Wisk. Various sizes and heaviness. Aerate, mix, beat, stir.
Hand Tools & Small Equipment Zester: Shreds small pieces of outer peel of citrus fruits.
Measuring Utensils Balance/Baker’s scale: Best for repetitive spot checking. Bi-metallic steamed thermometer: Works with a bi-metal spring, needs frequent adjustment. Digital scale: Wisk. Accurately measures weight in U.S. and metric.
Measuring Utensils Ladle: Various sizes. Measures in fluid ounces and metric. Measuring cup: Sets include ¼, ⅓, ½, ¾ and 1 cup volume. Weighs liquid accurately (some have a spout), dry- less accurately. Measuring spoon: Sets include ¼, ½ and 1 teaspoon and 1 tablespoon. Used to measure smaller quantities.
Measuring Utensils Portion scale: Uses spring. Dial rotates to tare. Careful of head movement. Scoop: Disher. Number stamped on scoop is number of scoops per quart. Often color coded. Thermocouple: Thermometer. Sensing area is on the tip. Can measure thick and thin foods. Probes include immersion, surface, penetration, and air.
Measuring Utensils Volume measure: Metal and glass. Usually available in 1 pint, 1 quart, ½ gallon and 1 gallon.
Pots & Pans Pots are generally larger, with straight sides and two loop handles Pans tend to be shallower with one long handle and either straight or sloped sides
Care of Pots and Pans Aluminum: Hand wash, soapy water, non abrasive cleaner. Cast Iron: Season and keep conditioned and dry. Wash in warm water, a little soap if absolutely necessary. Chrome: Hand wash, soapy water, non abrasive cleaner. Copper: Commercial cleaner to remove discoloration before regular washing, dry thoroughly. Stainless Steel: Hot soapy water. Nonstick Coating: Plastic mesh scrubber, avoid scratching. Remember to clean bottoms to avoid hot spots.
Look for Heavy guage Even heat distribution Riveted handle (ovenable) Non-reactive lining
Pots Brazier: Rondeau. Medium to large pot, shallower than most sauce pots. Straight sides, handles, heavy bottom, cover. Braise meat and vegetables. Double boiler. Upper pot holds food, lower pot holds simmering water. Used to gently cook/heat, chocolate, butter, custard. Fondue pot: Heat source is directly below pot. A semi-liquid (cheese, chocolate) is kept warm in pot into which bits of food are dipped and eaten.
Pots Sauce pot: More shallow than a stock pot, straight sides, loop handles. Used to cook sauce, soup. Stock pot. Large straight sided loop handled pot. Used to cook stock. May have spigot for drainage.
Pans Braising pan: High sided, flat bottomed. Cake Pan: Straight sides. Various sizes and shapes. Look for medium to heavy weight aluminum, rimmed. Cast-iron pan: Heavy, thick bottomed cast iron. Must be seasoned (a baked on coating of vegetable oil). Even heat.
Pans Crêpe pan: A shallow skillet with very short slightly sloping sides. Fish poacher: Long, narrow metal pan with a perforated rack to raise and lower delicate fish. Hotel pan: Various sizes, standard 12”x20”x2.5” (200 pan), …x4” (400 pan, etc.). Also ½. ¼, ⅓ etc. Used to hold prepared food in steam table, chafer, refrigerator.
Pans Muffin tin: Standard is 12 cavity, each cavity holding approx. 2.75 oz. batter (#12 scoop). Used for muffins, cupcakes and other small baked goods. Roasting pan: Shallow, rectangular pan, medium- high sides, handles. Used to roast meats, vegetables, bones. Sauce pan: Various sizes, medium height, single long handle. Used for general cooking, in particular, liquid or liquid based mixtures on a range.
Pans Sauté pan: Sautoir. Wide bottom, straight sides, long handle. Larger surface than sauteuse. Best to sauté pieces of meat, reduce liquids, pan fry. Sauteuse pan: Skillet. Fry pan. Curved sides, long handle. Easier to flip food. Sheet pan: Full: 18”x26”x1”, ½: 12”x18”x1”. Usually aluminum. Used for anything from cookies to bacon to vegetables.
Pans Spring form pan: Then side clamps around the bottom using a spring clip. False bottom pan: Bottom is removed by pushing it up from the bottom. Wok: Full: Asian. Rounded bottom, curved sides. Facilitates stir-frying.
Cutters & Mixers Counter-top blender: Base houses motor, removable lidded jar with propeller-like blade to puree, liquefy or blend. Immersion blender: Hand blender, stick blender, burr mixer. Mixes in bowl or pot containing food. Food chopper: Buffalo chopper. Chops vegetables, meat and other foods using a vertical rotating blade and a bowl that rotates the food under the blade.
Cutters & Mixers Food processor: Base houses motor, removable lidded bowl with S- blade to puree, liquefy or blend. Horizontal Cutter Mixer (HCM): Vertical Mixer. High-speed S-blade. Tilts forward to empty. Mandoline: Manual slicer, adjustable blades for slicing, julienne. Also, less expensive plastic models.
Cutters & Mixers Meat grinder: Free-standing or attachment. Product is pushed through feed tube, pulled by worm (auger), cut by an X-blade and forced through a perforated plate. Meat Slicer: Slanted circular blade. Product is placed on a hopper and pushed along a carriage into the spinning very sharp blade. Mixer: 5 qt., 20 qt., 60 qt., 80 qt. Planetary action. Attachments: ladle, whip, hook, grinders, shredders, slicers, juicers.
Mixer Attachments Flat paddle: Beater. Mix, mash, cream soft foods. Wire whip: Whisk and add air to light foods: egg whites, cream, soft frosting. Wing whip: Heavier version of wire whip.
Mixer Attachments Pastry knife (paddle): Used to cut fat into flour. Dough arm (hook): Used to mix and knead heavy dough.
Steamers Generally used to cook vegetables and grains Provides direct contact with steam Cooks quickly and efficiently Water is below, not in contact, with food
Remember Be sure you’re trained, get proper instructions, read manufacturer’s instructions Use all safety features (lids/guards secure, cut gloves). Be sure machine is stable Turn off and unplug after use Clean and sanitize after use Reassemble properly Report any problems
Steamers Steamer: Uses low or high steam pressure. Often stacked pots- lower: water, upper: perforated bottom. Also, perforated plate insert. Convection steamer: Steam is generated in a boiler and piped into cooking chamber where it’s vented over the food and the vented. No pressure build up in unit. Pressure steamer: Uses high pressure steam. Pressure must be released before opening door. Timers often control cook times and venting.
Steamers Steam-jacketed kettle: Free-standing and table-top. Bottom and sides have two layers, steam circulates between the layers. Even heat distribution. Tilting fry pan: Tilt skillet, grill, steam, braise, sauté, stew. If tight fitting lid, can be used as a steamer.
Broilers Uses very intense direct heat Cooks quickly Heat source is from above Also pictured are Grills, heat source from below
Broilers Charbroiler (Grill): Gas or electric to mimic charcoal. Juices drip onto heat source, creating flames and smoke adding flavor. Countertop broiler: Generally used by quick-service restaurants. Heat from above. Hotel broiler: Large radiant broiler for larhe amounts of food.
Broilers Rotisserie: Food, often poultry, is placed on a stick, or spit and is roasted while rotating. Unit may be open or enclosed. Salamander: Small radiant broiler attached to the back of a range. Used to brown, finish, melt.
A range is a cooking unit with an open heat source.
Ranges, Griddles, Fryers Deep-fat fryer: Gas and electric. Cook food in oil heated to between 300-400°F. Flat top (French top): Food (in pots and pans) is cooked on a thick slate of cast iron or steel. Provides even consistent heat. Griddle: Food is cooked directly on a thick plate of metal. Usually designed with edges to contain food and drain waste.
Ranges, Griddles, Fryers Induction burner: Generates heat by means of magnetic attraction between the cooktop and a steel or cast iron pot or pan. Reaction time is significantly faster than a conventional burner. Open burner: Grate style gas burner supplies direct heat by means of an open flame. Heat is quickly and easily controlled. Ring-top burner: Add or remove different sized rings to allow more or less heat.
Ranges, Griddles, Fryers Wok burner: Gas/propane burner with multiple jets and a collared top provide intense heat. Produces wok hey: savory, charred flavor associated with the best wok cooked dishes.
Ovens Convection oven: Fan circulates heated air around the food as it cooks. Increases efficiency. Usually need to reduce temperature 25-50°F. Combi-oven: Combines a convection oven with a steamer. Convective steam, convective dry hot air or both. Conventional oven: Heat source at bottom. Heat rises to the cavity which contains racks. Oven is located below a range-top burner.
Ovens Conveyor oven: Conveyor belt moves food along in one direction. Heat source both top and bottom. Deck oven: Conventional oven with one to four high- heat ceramic/stone shelves. Food is cooked directly on shelves. Microwave oven: Uses microwaves of energy causing a food’s molecules (water, fat, sugar) to vibrate and create heat. Used mainly to thaw and re-heat.
Ovens Rotary oven: Cabinet type: rotates speed rack. Also, Merry-go-round type and Ferris wheel type. Slow-roasting oven: Roasts meats at low temperatures for long periods of time. Preserves moisture, reduces shrinkage. Smoker: Treats foods with smoke. Look for smokers that operate at hot or cool temperatures.
Ovens Tandoori oven: Cylindrical or barrel shaped clay oven. Wood or coal fire at bottom. Open top. Dough is flung onto the inside wall for flatbread, meat is skewered for roasting.
Holding and Serving Equipment Bain-marie: Any type of hot water bathment to keep food warm. Beverage dispenser: Pre-mix: attached to a tank of pre-mixed CO 2 /water/syrup. Post-mix: attached to separate tanks of CO 2 /water/syrup. Refrigerated or iced cold plate. Chafing dishes: Consists of a frame, water pan, cover. Hotel pans are inserted into water pan. Heated by tins of Sterno, underneath.
Holding and Serving Equipment Coffee maker: Pass-through: manually add water which is heated and passed through a filtered basket of grounds. Automatic models are plumbed into a water source. Expresso machine: Forces hot water, under pressure through finely ground coffee. Food warmer or steam table: Water based or dry. Designed to keep foods in hotel pans at a minimum 135°F. Not for cooking or re-heating.
Holding and Serving Equipment Hot box: Insulated box to hold hotel pans and sheet pans at temperature during transport. Hot holding cabinet: Insulated cabinet to hold hotel or sheet pans. Thermostat controls temperature and humidity. Ice machine: Makes ice cubes. Keep sanitized, use proper scoop.
Holding and Serving Equipment Tea maker: Similar to coffee maker. Speed rack: Metal wheeled rack with L brackets to hold sheet pans at various hights, depending on need.