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The Storage of Grain and Aging of Flour, And Its Effects On Flour Functionality Omar Miranda Garcia 1, Andrew Ross 2, Ph.D Bioresource Research 1, Department.

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Presentation on theme: "The Storage of Grain and Aging of Flour, And Its Effects On Flour Functionality Omar Miranda Garcia 1, Andrew Ross 2, Ph.D Bioresource Research 1, Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Storage of Grain and Aging of Flour, And Its Effects On Flour Functionality Omar Miranda Garcia 1, Andrew Ross 2, Ph.D Bioresource Research 1, Department of Crop and Soil Science 2, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331

2 Introduction: Wheat 2 2 Annual global production ~ 600 million metric tons USA produces ~ 50 to 60 million metric tons Oregon produces ~ 2 million metric tons valued at around $500 million

3 Wheat types 2 3 Wheat can be found in: 1.hard and soft 2.red and white 3.and in winter and spring growth habits

4 Project focus 2 4 The project focused on soft white (SW) winter wheat: the main wheat class produced in the Pacific Northwest. Used for baked products such as:

5 Grain anatomy and composition

6 2 6 Caryopsis 1.Outer Bran 2.Endosperm 3.Germ Grain anatomy

7 Flour is primarily endosperm and has 3 main functional components Starch 2.Gluten proteins 3.Arabinoxylans

8 3 8 All 3 contribute to overall water absorption of flour. Absorption is highly relevant to preparation of doughs and batters for baked goods. Flour has 3 main functional components

9 Relevance 2 9

10 Starch % of wheat flour weight: consists of two types of polymeric glucose: 1.Amylopectin (75%) 2.Amylose (25%) Packaged in “granules”

11 Starch granules 2 11 (Vandeputte & Delcour, 2004)

12 Damaged starch granules Up to 10% of granules are damaged during milling Damaged granules have higher absorption capacity

13 Gluten 2 13 Found in the endosperm as gluten-forming proteins. Two main components: 1.Polymeric glutenins 2.Monomeric gliadins

14 Gluten 2 14 Characteristics of gluten make it the main quality determinant in bread making. Though its not a key determinant for cookie performance, it is a key determinant of flour functionality for crackers

15 Arabinoxylans 2 15 Arabinoxylans (AX) are located in the cell walls of the endosperm. Contribute to the texture (softness or hardness) of the kernel. Two categories: 1. Water un-extractable (WUAX) 2. Water extractable (WEAX)

16 2 16 Arabinoxylans Negative impacts: Smaller cookie diameters Positive impacts: in bread-making WEAX

17 Flour composition 2 17 Variation in flour composition is economically and functionally important for manufacturing processes and the resulting end-products. Different types of wheat are differentially suitable for any particular end product.

18 Flour for bread Production High Water absorption High gluten strength Moderately high damaged starch High WEAX Flour for cookie Production Low water absorption Minimal gluten strength Low damaged starch Low AX

19 Wheat Flour Aging 3 19 Naturally occurring maturation of flour when exposed to oxygen and light. Modification of flour parameters.

20 Hypothesis 3 20 In SW wheat, aging may increase absorption properties of the flour.

21 Aims 4 21 The aim of this study was to determine if absorption capacity of SW wheat flour changes as a response to grain storage and flour aging using Solvent Retention Capacity Test (SRC: a measure of flour absorption capacity and functionality).

22 Aims 4 22 To determine if SRC testing can be done immediately after harvest and/or milling or whether a period of aging was necessary to obtain valid flour functionality measurements.

23 Materials and Methods

24 10 24 Materials and testing schedule Double aging study  Grain and Flour 4 Different varieties were chosen  Based on preliminary data obtained from surveying grain from a prior harvest

25 10 25 Materials and testing schedule Grain from 4 soft-wheat varieties 1.Tubbs 2.Goetze 3.Skiles 4.Bobtail

26 10 26 Materials and testing schedule Grain Aging Week 0 Week 3 Week 6 Week 12 Week 24 Milling Flour Aging (days) SRC Test

27 10 27 Milling Process Milling aims to separate the anatomical parts of the kernel to produce flour with minimal inclusion of bran particles

28 10 28 Milling Process

29 SRC profile 5 29 Four tests, using 3 different aqueous solutions and water: Water 5% (w/w) Sodium Carbonate 50% (w/w) Sucrose 5% (w/w) Lactic Acid

30 6 30 SRC workflow

31 Principle of SRC 8 31 Small molecules dissolve in excess amounts of solvent, but specific macro polymers can hydrate and easily entangle rather than dissolve. Different solvents exaggerate the swelling of specific polymeric networks.

32 Principle of SRC 8 32 Water SRC Damaged starch Arabinoxylan

33 Sucrose SRC 9 33 Arabinoxylan

34 Carbonate SRC 9 34 Damaged starch

35 Lactic acid SRC 9 35

36 Results

37 11 37 Water SRC Swelling of all Functional Components

38 11 38 Water SRC Swelling of all Functional Components

39 11 39 Sucrose SRC Arabinoxylans & Gliadins

40 11 40 Sucrose SRC Arabinoxylans & Gliadins

41 12 41 Carbonate SRC Damaged Starch

42 12 42 Carbonate SRC Damaged Starch

43 12 43 Week 0: Days after milling Carbonate SRC Damaged Starch

44 12 44 Lactic acid SRC Glutenin

45 12 45 Lactic acid SRC Glutenin

46 Conclusions Systematic differences in SRC were observed between varieties at all grain storage and flour aging stages.

47 Conclusions SRC values of SW wheat did change in response to grain storage and flour aging.

48 Conclusions These results suggest that SRC testing could be done immediately after harvest and/or milling, if the primary aim was to determine differences between varieties.

49 Conclusions Being able to test differences between varieties [genotypes] immediately after harvest is vital for wheat breeding programs due to the necessity for high throughput in short time frames.

50 14 50 If the primary aim was to predict flour functionality for commercial production then the small but significant changes in SRC across the grain storage and flour aging periods need to be accounted for. Conclusions

51 14 51 Water and sucrose SRCs showed small but significant increases across the grain storage and flour aging periods. Partially supports the original hypothesis. Conclusions

52 14 52 Sodium carbonate SRC was significantly higher when tested on freshly milled flour from freshly harvested grain. Conclusions

53 14 53 Lactic acid SRCs had significant decreases across the grain storage and flour aging periods. Partially refutes the original hypothesis. Conclusions

54 Further Research In parallel the oxidative gelation test AX cross linking

55 Further Research AX cross linking

56 Further Research AX cross linking

57 16 57 References Bettge, A. D., & Morris, C. F. (2007). Oxidative gelation measurement and influence on soft wheat batter viscosity and end-use quality. Cereal Chemistry, 84(3), 237–242. doi: /CCHEM Delcour, J. A., & Hoseney, R. C. (2010). Principles of Cereal Science and Technology (3, illustrated.). AACC International. Duyvejonck, A. E., Lagrain, B., Pareyt, B., Courtin, C. M., & Delcour, J. A. (2011). Relative contribution of wheat flour constituents to Solvent Retention Capacity profiles of European wheats. Journal of Cereal Science, 53(3), 312–318. doi: /j.jcs Hoseney, R. C. (1986). Principles of cereal science and technology (Vol. 327). St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; American Association of Cereal Chemists. Kweon, M., Slade, L., & Levine, H. (2011). Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) Testing of Wheat Flour: Principles and Value in Predicting Flour Functionality in Different Wheat-Based Food Processes and in Wheat Breeding-A Review. Cereal Chemistry, 88(6), 537–552. doi: /CCHEM Oregon Agriculture & Fisheries Statistics. (2011, 2012). Retrieved May 23, 2013, from Zeeman, S. C., Kossmann, J., & Smith, A. M. (2010). Starch: Its Metabolism, Evolution, and Biotechnological Modification in Plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 61(1), 209–234. doi: /annurev-arplant

58 16 58 Acknowledgments The Multicultural Scholars Program (MSP) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) US Department of Agriculture (USDA); College of Agricultural Sciences, ER Jackman Internship Support Program College of Agriculture Sciences, Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research Endowment Fund

59 16 59 Acknowledgments Wanda Crannell Dr. Andrew Ross Dr. Michael Penner Dr. Katharine Field


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