Presentation on theme: "The Storage of Grain and Aging of Flour, And Its Effects On Flour Functionality Omar Miranda Garcia 1, Andrew Ross 2, Ph.D Bioresource Research 1, Department."— Presentation transcript:
The Storage of Grain and Aging of Flour, And Its Effects On Flour Functionality Omar Miranda Garcia 1, Andrew Ross 2, Ph.D Bioresource Research 1, Department of Crop and Soil Science 2, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, 97331
Introduction: Wheat 2 2 Annual global production ~ 600 million metric tons USA produces ~ 50 to 60 million metric tons Oregon produces ~ 2 million metric tons valued at around $500 million
Wheat types 2 3 Wheat can be found in: 1.hard and soft 2.red and white 3.and in winter and spring growth habits
Project focus 2 4 The project focused on soft white (SW) winter wheat: the main wheat class produced in the Pacific Northwest. Used for baked products such as: http://www.squidoo.com/all-about-chocolate-cake
Damaged starch granules Up to 10% of granules are damaged during milling Damaged granules have higher absorption capacity
Gluten 2 13 Found in the endosperm as gluten-forming proteins. Two main components: 1.Polymeric glutenins 2.Monomeric gliadins
Gluten 2 14 Characteristics of gluten make it the main quality determinant in bread making. Though its not a key determinant for cookie performance, it is a key determinant of flour functionality for crackers
Arabinoxylans 2 15 Arabinoxylans (AX) are located in the cell walls of the endosperm. Contribute to the texture (softness or hardness) of the kernel. Two categories: 1. Water un-extractable (WUAX) 2. Water extractable (WEAX)
Flour composition 2 17 Variation in flour composition is economically and functionally important for manufacturing processes and the resulting end-products. Different types of wheat are differentially suitable for any particular end product.
Flour for bread Production High Water absorption High gluten strength Moderately high damaged starch High WEAX Flour for cookie Production Low water absorption Minimal gluten strength Low damaged starch Low AX
Wheat Flour Aging 3 19 Naturally occurring maturation of flour when exposed to oxygen and light. Modification of flour parameters.
Hypothesis 3 20 In SW wheat, aging may increase absorption properties of the flour.
Aims 4 21 The aim of this study was to determine if absorption capacity of SW wheat flour changes as a response to grain storage and flour aging using Solvent Retention Capacity Test (SRC: a measure of flour absorption capacity and functionality).
Aims 4 22 To determine if SRC testing can be done immediately after harvest and/or milling or whether a period of aging was necessary to obtain valid flour functionality measurements.
Materials and Methods
10 24 Materials and testing schedule Double aging study Grain and Flour 4 Different varieties were chosen Based on preliminary data obtained from surveying grain from a prior harvest
10 25 Materials and testing schedule Grain from 4 soft-wheat varieties 1.Tubbs 2.Goetze 3.Skiles 4.Bobtail
10 27 Milling Process Milling aims to separate the anatomical parts of the kernel to produce flour with minimal inclusion of bran particles
10 28 Milling Process
SRC profile 5 29 Four tests, using 3 different aqueous solutions and water: Water 5% (w/w) Sodium Carbonate 50% (w/w) Sucrose 5% (w/w) Lactic Acid
6 30 SRC workflow
Principle of SRC 8 31 Small molecules dissolve in excess amounts of solvent, but specific macro polymers can hydrate and easily entangle rather than dissolve. Different solvents exaggerate the swelling of specific polymeric networks.
Principle of SRC 8 32 Water SRC Damaged starch Arabinoxylan
Sucrose SRC 9 33 Arabinoxylan
Carbonate SRC 9 34 Damaged starch
Lactic acid SRC 9 35
11 37 Water SRC Swelling of all Functional Components
11 38 Water SRC Swelling of all Functional Components
11 39 Sucrose SRC Arabinoxylans & Gliadins
11 40 Sucrose SRC Arabinoxylans & Gliadins
12 41 Carbonate SRC Damaged Starch
12 42 Carbonate SRC Damaged Starch
12 43 Week 0: Days after milling Carbonate SRC Damaged Starch
12 44 Lactic acid SRC Glutenin
12 45 Lactic acid SRC Glutenin
Conclusions 14 46 Systematic differences in SRC were observed between varieties at all grain storage and flour aging stages.
Conclusions 14 47 SRC values of SW wheat did change in response to grain storage and flour aging.
Conclusions 14 48 These results suggest that SRC testing could be done immediately after harvest and/or milling, if the primary aim was to determine differences between varieties.
Conclusions 14 49 Being able to test differences between varieties [genotypes] immediately after harvest is vital for wheat breeding programs due to the necessity for high throughput in short time frames.
14 50 If the primary aim was to predict flour functionality for commercial production then the small but significant changes in SRC across the grain storage and flour aging periods need to be accounted for. Conclusions
14 51 Water and sucrose SRCs showed small but significant increases across the grain storage and flour aging periods. Partially supports the original hypothesis. Conclusions
14 52 Sodium carbonate SRC was significantly higher when tested on freshly milled flour from freshly harvested grain. Conclusions
14 53 Lactic acid SRCs had significant decreases across the grain storage and flour aging periods. Partially refutes the original hypothesis. Conclusions
Further Research 14 54 In parallel the oxidative gelation test AX cross linking
Further Research 14 55 AX cross linking
Further Research 14 56 AX cross linking
16 57 References Bettge, A. D., & Morris, C. F. (2007). Oxidative gelation measurement and influence on soft wheat batter viscosity and end-use quality. Cereal Chemistry, 84(3), 237–242. doi:10.1094/CCHEM-84-3-0237 Delcour, J. A., & Hoseney, R. C. (2010). Principles of Cereal Science and Technology (3, illustrated.). AACC International. Duyvejonck, A. E., Lagrain, B., Pareyt, B., Courtin, C. M., & Delcour, J. A. (2011). Relative contribution of wheat flour constituents to Solvent Retention Capacity profiles of European wheats. Journal of Cereal Science, 53(3), 312–318. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2011.01.014 Hoseney, R. C. (1986). Principles of cereal science and technology (Vol. 327). St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; American Association of Cereal Chemists. Kweon, M., Slade, L., & Levine, H. (2011). Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) Testing of Wheat Flour: Principles and Value in Predicting Flour Functionality in Different Wheat-Based Food Processes and in Wheat Breeding-A Review. Cereal Chemistry, 88(6), 537–552. doi:10.1094/CCHEM-07-11-0092 Oregon Agriculture & Fisheries Statistics. (2011, 2012). Retrieved May 23, 2013, from http://www.oregon.gov/ODA/docs/pdf/pubs/agripedia_stats.pdf Zeeman, S. C., Kossmann, J., & Smith, A. M. (2010). Starch: Its Metabolism, Evolution, and Biotechnological Modification in Plants. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 61(1), 209–234. doi:10.1146/annurev-arplant-042809-112301
16 58 Acknowledgments The Multicultural Scholars Program (MSP) National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) US Department of Agriculture (USDA); College of Agricultural Sciences, ER Jackman Internship Support Program College of Agriculture Sciences, Calvin & Merle Smith Wheat Research Endowment Fund
16 59 Acknowledgments Wanda Crannell Dr. Andrew Ross Dr. Michael Penner Dr. Katharine Field