Presentation on theme: "Hadley Chefs Study Guide For Basic Cooking Skills Test."— Presentation transcript:
Hadley Chefs Study Guide For Basic Cooking Skills Test
Cooking Abbreviations Tablespoon – T. or Tbsp. teaspoon – t. or tsp. cup – C. pint – pt. quart – qt. gallon – gal. ounce – oz. pound – lbs. dozen – doz.
Equivalent Measurements 1 tablespoon = 3 teaspoons 1 stick of butter = 1/2 cup or 8 tablespoons 1 cup = 16 tablespoons or 8 ounces 1 pint = 2 cups 1 quart = 2 pints 1 gallon = 4 quarts 1 pound = 16 ounces
Amounts that can be measured by standard utensils Dry Measuring Cups – 1/4 cup, 1/3 cup, 1/2 cup, and 1 cup Liquid Measuring Cups – 1/4 cup, 1/3 cup, 1/2 cup, 2/3 cup, 3/4 cup, and 1 cup Measuring Spoons – 1/4 teaspoon, 1/2 teaspoon, 1 teaspoon, 1 tablespoon
Measuring dry ingredients in the following amounts. 1/8 t. = one half of 1/4 t. 3/4 C. = 1/2 C. + 1/4 C. or 1/4 C. x 3 2/3 C. = 1/3 C. x 2
Purpose of Ingredients Flour - Forms the structure of the baked product. Sugar - Adds a sweet flavor and helps with browning. Leavening Agent - Makes the baked product rise due to the formation of carbon dioxide. Baking soda and baking powder are examples. Salt - An optional ingredient. It enhances flavor. Liquid - Adds moisture, distributes flavorings, and tenderizes the baked product. Fat - Tenderizes the baked product. Examples are butter, shortening, and oil. Eggs - Binds ingredients together and helps to make the baked product rise.
How to Use a Recipe A recipe is your guide to help you prepare a certain food. It should tell you … Kinds of ingredients Exact amounts of ingredients Step-by-step instructions for preparing the recipe Type and size of the pan Temperatures needed to prepare the food or other instructions like “simmer” or “boil” Length of time to cook the food Number of servings or yield
Doubling a Recipe Go carefully with seasonings. Twice as much may be too much. Begin by adding half as much, then taste and make adjustments. Before doubling, check to see if another recipe may serve larger numbers. Cooking time may be increased. Test to see. You will need to know equivalent measurements and depend on math skills. Always take each ingredient and multiply by 2. Example 3/4 cup x 2 = 3/4 x 2/1 = 6/4 = 1 2/4 or 1 1/2 cups
Dividing a Recipe in Half Before you decide to divide a recipe, consider the possibility of making the full amount and storing half in the freezer for another meal. Choose a recipe that will divide easily. Cooking time may be reduced, though seldom as much as half. You may need to choose a smaller pan. If the recipe calls for half an egg, the egg can be beaten lightly, measured, and half the amount used. The average sized egg usually contains about four tablespoons. Another possibility is to use either the egg yolk or the egg white instead of the whole egg. Sometimes when dividing odd measurements, the divided amount might be different than the sizes of standard measuring utensils. You might have to convert measurements from cups to tablespoons and from tablespoons to teaspoons to get the correct amounts. It is important to know equivalent measurements like three teaspoons equal one tablespoon so you can make those adjustments. Example Divide 1/2 cup in half 1/2 ÷ 2 = 1/2 x 1/2 = 1/4 cup
Cooking Terms Al dente An Italian term which means “firm to the tooth” – a desirable degree of doneness so that the pasta is neither crunchy (underdone) or mushy (overdone). BakeTo cook food with dry heat usually in an oven, like when you make muffins. BeatTo combine ingredients using a fast motion which adds air and makes the mixture smooth like when you make pancakes. BlendAnother term for mixing, like when you stir muffin batter. BoilTo cook food in a liquid at a high temperature so bubbles break at the surface, like when you make pasta. BrushTo cover food lightly with another food like milk, melted butter, or blended egg. ChillTo put food into refrigerator until cold. CoatTo apply a thin layer of one food onto another food for flavor and texture. Combine To blend ingredients together. Core To remove the center of a fruit which contains the seeds or has a woody texture. CreamTo combine butter with sugar by beating it until it is light and fluffy, like when you make the chocolate chip cookies. Crumble The process of breaking food into smaller pieces using your fingers. Cut inTo combine shortening or butter with dry ingredients using a pastry blender or fork, like when you make pie pastry. Dice To cut food into squares smaller than 1/2 inch, using a knife. Dip To immerse food for a short time in a liquid or dry mixture to coat, cool, or moisten it.
Cooking Terms (continued) Fold inTo gently combine ingredients by bringing a rubber scraper down through the center of the mixture, turning the rubber scraper at the bottom and bringing the underneath mixture up. GreaseTo spread a thin layer of oil (cooking spray) over the inside of a baking dish to prevent from sticking to the pan. KneadThe manipulation of dough with a fold-push-turn action to develop the structure of bread dough. Melt To turn from a solid to a liquid by through heat. MixA general term for combining ingredients. Pare or PeelTo cut away a thin layer of skin from fruits and vegetables. PinchTo use a very small amount of an ingredient. Preheat To heat an oven to a certain temperature prior to cooking. SeasonTo add salt, herbs, and other seasonings to food to add flavor, like when you make marinara sauce. Separate To divide an egg into its distinct parts – the yolk and the white. Shred To cut food into narrow strips. A grater or food processor may be used to shred. Slice The process of cutting flat, thin pieces of food from a larger piece. Spoon Transfer batter from a bowl to a baking pan using teaspoons. Spread To cover evenly with a layer of one food on top of another. Stir To combine ingredients using a circular motion. SimmerTo cook in a liquid that is just below the boiling point. Toss To mix lightly with a fork. WhipA very fast form of beating which adds air to a mixture
Station One Meal Planning – Cooking Tips French Toast French toast is cooked on a griddle on the stovetop. A griddle is a square or round flat pan with very narrow sides. Foods that do not rise very much are cooked on a griddle. A griddle should not be used for any foods that could overflow the sides. To use a griddle: Grease it lightly and evenly. This prevents the food from sticking as it cooks. Use butter when making French toast. Place the griddle on the stovetop at a medium heat setting. Heat for about one minute. Test the heat by flicking a little water on the griddle. If it sizzles, the griddle is hot enough to begin cooking. Cook several pieces of French toast at the same time.
Station One Meal Planning – Cooking Tips Mac and Cheese For Mac and Cheese, make a white sauce. A white sauce is milk or cream that is thickened with a butter-and-flour roux. A roux is a thickening agent which is a mixture of equal amounts of flour and fat. For Mac and Cheese, chunks of cheese will be added to the white sauce, melted, and blended to make a cheese sauce. To make a white sauce: 1.First, make a roux by melting fat (butter) in a saucepan over medium heat. Stir in an equal amount of flour. A smooth paste will form. Cook and stir the roux only until it bubbles. 2.Gradually stir in the milk. Cook over low heat, stirring constantly with a wire whisk until thickened. 3.Season as desired or add cheese to make a cheese sauce.
Station Two International Cuisine – Cooking Tips Calzones In making yeast dough: Yeast is a leavening agent which feeds off of sugar and then produces carbon dioxide to make dough rise. When using granular yeast, dissolve it in warm water to activate it. Water that is too hot or too cool won’t activate it. When all ingredients have been added, knead the dough on a floured surface. Flour prevents the dough from sticking to the table. Yet, be careful not to use too much flour because it will be added to the dough and dry it out. Also, you can never over-knead dough. When rolling dough, use a lightly floured rolling pin to prevent the dough from sticking. Roll the dough from the center out in all four directions for an even thickness. Remember: North-South-East-West.
Station Two International Cuisine – Cooking Tips Chocolate Mousse The Dark Chocolate Dark chocolate is chocolate without milk solids added. Dark chocolate has a stronger chocolate flavor than milk chocolate. Since it doesn’t have milk additives, it can be dry, have crumbly consistency and a bitter aftertaste. Semi-sweet dark chocolate does have some sugar added to make it sweet. The Egg Yolks Egg yolks are used as a thickening agent in chocolate mousse. You can't just add them to a hot mixture because they will coagulate (turn to a solid) on contact like scrambled eggs. To add egg yolks to a hot mixture, you need to slowly warm them up by adding some of the hot liquid to the egg yolks, whisking the mixture together and then adding it to the sauce. The Whipped Cream Use cream that has either a 36 to 40 percent milk-fat content (heavy cream) or 30 to 36 percent (light whipping cream). Begin with thoroughly chilled cream. Chill the bowl and beaters too. Start by beating with electric mixer on medium speed, then increase speed. Soft peak stage - Beating on medium speed until the volume increases and the mixture thickens. Peaks will curl down when the beaters are lifted up. Continue beating on high speed and volume will increase and the mixture thickens even more. Lift up the beaters—the peaks should point straight up. If you tilt the bowl, the mixture should not slide around. Don’t over-whip the cream. It will turn to butter.
Station Three Party Planning – Cooking Tips Carrot Cake In making a cake: Always measure ingredients accurately. Prepare pans for a layer cake by greasing and flouring the sides of the pan and lining the bottom with a circle of waxed paper. Fill a cake pan only 2/3 full with batter to allow for the cake to rise. More than that amount could cause the batter to overflow the cake pan. When baking the cake, to test for doneness: The top should be lightly browned. Insert a toothpick in the middle. If it comes out clean with no batter on it, the cake is done. The cake will shrink away from the sides of the pan. If you lightly touch the top, the cake should feel solid. If you press down lightly, the cake should spring back up. Cool the cake layers completely on a cooling rack before you attempt to remove them from the pans. To remove the cake from the pans, loosen the layers by running a knife or narrow spatula around the edges. Put a dinner plate upside-down on top of the layer and turn cake and plate right-side up. The cake should slide out of the pan onto the plate. Frost by applying a center layer of frosting, then a crumb coat or seal layer, and lastly the finishing layer.
Station Three Party Planning – Cooking Tips Frosted Mini Cakes When making cupcakes, using paper liners in the muffin tin makes for easy clean-up. Use confectioner’s sugar (powdered sugar) for making frosting. Make frosting the proper consistency for the type of decorations you will be making on the cake. Make frosting roses on a small piece of waxed paper and freeze them for 10 minutes. The flower will harden and can easily be transferred to the cake. If frosting is made too thin, thicken it by gradually adding small amounts of powdered sugar until the desired consistency is reached. If frosting is made too thick, it can be thinned by gradually adding small amounts of milk until the desire consistency is reached. Frosting can be made ahead of time. It will keep in the refrigerator for about a week. Frosting that has been chilled must be softened before being used. To soften frosting, let it warm up to room temperature or warm it in the microwave for 10 – 15 seconds and stir.
Station Four Cooks and Chefs – Cooking Tips Chocolate Butterscotch Cookie Bars Bar cookies are cookies that are baked in a shallow pan and then cut into bars or square. In making bar cookies; Cookie dough is made for bar cookies in the same way that it is made for drop cookies. Dark brown sugar is used in this recipe to give the cookies a stronger flavor because dark brown sugar has more molasses in it than light brown sugar. Soften the butter by putting it in a microwave-safe bowl in the microwave for about 10 – 15 seconds. Grease the pan lightly so the bar cookies won’t stick. Too much grease could cause the bottom of the cookie bars to burn. When adding the chocolate chips, stir them in the dough using a wooden spoon. Using a hand mixer can break apart the chips. The mixer could break if the chips get stuck between the mixing blades.
Station Four Cooks and Chefs – Cooking Tips Bacon and Cheese Poppers For making Poppers, the recipe uses a baking mix for the dough. A baking mix is a pre-mixed baking product which contains flour, shortening, salt, and baking powder. An example of a baking mix is Bisquick. A baking mix is a convenience food because part of the preparation has been done for you. Make sure when making the dough that it is the right consistency. A sticky dough results from the addition of too much water. It will be hard to roll out because it will stick to your hands and not maintain a round shape. A dry dough will crumble as you try to roll it. For dry dough, add an extra tablespoon or two of water. When rolling the dough, lightly flour your hands to prevent the dough from sticking to them. Roll all the poppers approximately the same size so they bake evenly. When putting the rolled poppers on the baking sheet, flatten them slightly so they will bake in less time than if you left them in a rounded shape. When making the poppers, you may leave out the bacon. It can be substituted with extra cheese.
Station Five American Cooking – Cooking Tips Corn Muffins Muffins are made by using the muffin method. In the muffin method, liquid ingredients are lightly mixed into dry ingredients resulting in a baked product which has a slightly coarse texture, but is still tender. In making muffins; Prepare pan by using paper liners. They make for easy clean-up. Spray liners lightly with cooking spray to prevent muffins from sticking. Too much spray will cause the bottoms to get overdone. After dry ingredients are measured, mix with a wire whisk to blend and equally distribute all dry ingredients. When liquid ingredients are added to dry ingredients, mix only until dry ingredients are moistened and the batter looks lumpy. Over mixing will produce large air pockets and a tough texture in the final baked product. To fill muffin tin, use the “two spoon method” to transfer the batter … take a spoonful of batter with one spoon, push the batter off into the tin by using the back of the second spoon. Fill each muffin section ¾ full with batter. Overfill and the batter might overflow the muffin tin. Be sure to put the same amount of batter in each muffin section so all muffins bake evenly for uniformity. When filling the muffin tin, if you have empty sections, fill them half way with water. The water makes them moist as they bake. Don’t over bake the corn muffins, the muffins will get dried out. To remove hot muffins from the muffin tin, slide a table knife in between the paper liner and the muffin tin. Go around the entire edge and the hot muffin will easily come out of the pan.
Station Five American Cooking – Cooking Tips Apple Crisp An American dish that has been around since colonial times is a dessert called Apple Brown Betty, which is a pudding dish made with apples and bread crumbs. Other apple desserts are apple pie, apple cobbler, and apple crisp. All these desserts taste wonderful with baked apples, cinnamon, sugar, and some kind of a crust. For apple desserts, it is important that the right kind of apple be used. At the grocery store, you will find many varieties of apples, but some are for eating and some are for cooking. Cooking apples are tart, crisp apples that hold their shape. Granny Smith, Jonathan, Rome Beauty, Winesop, Braeburn, Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Gala, McIntosh, and the rest are good for eating. Braeburn can be used for both eating and cooking. When the peel is removed from an apple, the inside can turn brown when exposed to the air. This happens because an enzyme in the apple reacts with the oxygen in the air. Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) can stop this from happening because it destroys the enzyme so it can’t react with the oxygen. Lemon juice, orange juice, and grapefruit juice all contain Vitamin C. If you make a solution with one of these juices and water and then dip the apple slices, browning can be prevented. Sometimes pouring full-strength juice on the apples can alter the flavor of whatever you are making. Another possibility is to buy ascorbic acid powder (Fruit Fresh) at the grocery store. A solution can be made for dipping the apple slices.
Station Six Easy Eats – Cooking Tips Chocolate Éclair Refrigerator Dessert What are some time-savers in the kitchen? 1.Use a “no bake” recipe - “No bake” recipes do not require any baking in the oven. Usually the recipe involves the mixing of ingredients like cereals, peanut butter, marshmallow cream, chocolate chips, etc. in a bowl and then putting the mixture in a pan or on a tray with waxed paper to harden. No bake recipes are quick and take a minimal amount of work. 2.Use convenience foods – These are foods are that have part of the preparation already done for you. They are quick and easy because there are fewer preparation steps compared to using a traditional recipe. Examples of convenience foods are cake mixes, puddings, and canned soups. 3.5 x 5 – These are recipes that contain no more than five ingredients. The use of only a few ingredients also means that fewer utensils will be used so you can save time on cleanup. One-bowl recipes also fall into this category. 4.Use time-saving equipment and appliances – Equipment that assists in food preparation by shortening cooking times with the use of different types of energy and/or by performing tasks that used to be done by hand in the kitchen. For example, a blender chops, blends, and liquefies foods by using various speeds for different preparation tasks. A food processor, on the other hand, performs jobs similar to a blender, but is more powerful and versatile. Along with advances in technology, there have also been advances in the development of cooking equipment. Microwave ovens, convection ovens, bread machines, crockpots, etc. have all been designed to save time in the kitchen. In using the microwave oven: A microwave oven cooks food by using microwaves not heat. Never put anything metal in the microwave oven. Metal reflects microwaves and can cause sparking. It can break the oven. Use paper, plastic, or glass dishes in the microwave oven. When heating food in a container, cover it lightly with plastic wrap or a paper towel. That prevents the splattering of food. Never seal a lid on a container. A sealed lid causes the pressure to build on the inside and will push the lid off. Food will splatter. After food is heated, allow for “standing time”. This is when you let the food stand for about 30 seconds to a minute after the maximum time has been reached before removing it. This allows cooking to finish. When removing food, always protect your hands with oven mitts. Containers will be hot from a transfer of heat from the food.
Station Six Easy Eats – Cooking Tips Fruit Salsa and Cinnamon Chips A food processor will chop foods; make cracker crumbs; grate foods; julienne cut vegetables and fruits; make doughs and batters; and shred foods. Larger food processors will also mix and knead yeast dough. Always follow the manufacturer directions when using a food processor. 1.Do not process food that is so hard that it cannot be pierced with the tip of a sharp knife because it can cause damage to the blade or motor. 2.Do not overfill the work bowl. 3.Position slicing disc so that the cutting surf ace is just to the right of the feed tube to allow the blade a full rotation before it cuts the food. 4.Drop ingredients to be chopped through the feed tube. 5.Different types of food require varying amounts of pressure for best shredding and slicing results 6.When shredding cheese, make sure the cheese is well-chilled. 7.When preparing cake or cookie batter, use the multipurpose blade to cream the fat and sugar first. Add dry ingredients last. 8.Pieces of food may remain on top of the disc after slicing or shredding. 9.To clean ingredients from the multipurpose blade quickly and easily, unplug the food processor, empty the work bowl, replace the lid, plug the food processor back in, and pulse for 1 to 2 seconds to spin the blade clean. 10.Do not use the food processor to grind coffee beans; liquefy raw fruits or vegetables; or slice hard-cooked eggs or unchilled meats When using a food processor, always remember … Safety First! Do not immerse the food processor base in water. Wipe with a damp cloth after use. Unplug the food processor when not in use. When handling blades for installation or cleaning, be careful. They are very sharp. Also, unplug the food processor when inserting or removing blades. Be certain the cover is securely locked in place before operating the food processor. Always use the food pusher to put food into the work bowl. When making the salsa, use the pulse setting on the food processor for total control in chopping the fruit. Don’t overdo it and puree the fruit. When making the chips, use a pizza cutter to evenly cut the tortillas into wedges. The rotating blade makes it easier. When placing the wedges, don’t get sugar and /or oil on the baking sheet because they will cause burning and smoking. Sugar and oil will do that in the oven.