Presentation on theme: "Charlie Stoops, PhD, LCSW Graduate School of Social Work Dominican University."— Presentation transcript:
Charlie Stoops, PhD, LCSW Graduate School of Social Work Dominican University
Overview What is domestic violence and abuse? A view from a change agent Is it Clinical or Is it Behavioral? A perspective on working to end men’s use of domestic violence How do we facilitate change: Common components of Partner Abuse Intervention Programs Does it work? How can the legal advocacy/process help?
Unique Form of Violence 1. Specific Target 2. Specific Gender 3. Specific Relationship 4. Specific Location 5. Violence is a last resort 6. Planned & Systematic
5 How many men? About 12% of adult men have been violent with an intimate female partner in past year According to US 2010 Census, 138 Million men in US. 16.6 million men will use violence with a partner this year. According to a report by the Bureau of Justice, of 3,750 reports of intimate partner violence filed in the state courts of 16 large urban counties in May 2002: Most involved a female victim and a male defendant (84%). 1 in 20 involved a defendant and victim of the same gender. The majority of the cases (male defendant/female victim) were more likely to entail a history of abuse between the victim and defendant. Defendant weapon use was more prevalent in cases with female defendants and male victims than in other cases. (Straus & Gelles, 1987; US Census 2010,; US Dept. of Justice, 2009)
6 How many men? Male Partners commit 30% of female homicides; Female partners commit 5% of male homicides In Chicago from January to June 2011, detectives have determined there were 10 general domestic related murders. Of these murders, most occurred in districts that averaged the lowest domestic-related calls/day. There were 4 murders in three districts that averaged 1-9 domestic-related calls/day. (Straus & Gelles, 1987; US Census 2010, Bureau of Justice Statistics, Intimate Partner Violence in the U.S. 1993-2004, 2006; Chicago Police Department — Quarterly Domestic Violence Statistical Summary — YTD - June 2011 ) Chicago Police Department — Quarterly Domestic Violence Statistical Summary — YTD - June 2011
Probability of Being a Man in a PAIP (x) Cook County IL has 1,889,934 men age 18 or older (2000 US Census) (y) y x*.12: 157,495 batterers in Cook Co IL (Straus & Gelles, 1989 found 12% of men batter in a given year) (z) In the year 2000, Cook County Court Dept. Social Service (DSS) disposed 1,905 new men for intervention related to domestic violence z/y = 0.012 (1.2%)... the approximate probability of getting into a PAIP (via DSS) in Cook County Illinois if you batter Compare Dutton rate: 4 per 1,000 (0.4%)
Conclusion It is rare for a man who batters to be in a Partner Abuse Intervention Program !
A perspective on working to end men’s use of domestic violence
10 Intervening with men who batter Intervention vs. Treatment Mandatory vs. Voluntary
11 Why do men batter? Social Theories Feminist Sociological Patriarchal Structure of Society Men’s violence toward women as a sanctioned action to maintain Patriarchy Ecological Integration of Biological, Individual, Environmental, Feminist Genetic Factors Learned Behavior Societal Structure Gendered Analysis
12 Characteristics of Men who abuse their intimate female partners Environmental Constraints Behavioral Deficits Family of origin violence Dating Violence Community Violence Abuse of own children
13 Characteristics of Men who abuse their intimate female partners Feelings Management (Anger) Stress/Anxiety Depression Generalized Aggression /Antisocial Traits Personality Disorders based on Saunders, D (1995)
Common components of Partner Abuse Intervention Programs
15 How do we Intervene! Accountability Men's Programs Beliefs Communication Skills Sexism, Racism, Classism, Homophobia Feelings Management vs. Anger Management Empathy - Impact on Women, Children & Self Impact of Other Issues & Referrals
16 Intervening with men who batter Treatment/Intervention for Co-occurring Conditions Environmental Physical Psychiatric Substance Misuse Personality Disorders Neurological
17 What we don’t do! Contraindicated Approaches “Anger Management” Pastoral Counseling Individual Therapy Couples Therapy Personal Confrontation
18 Why NOT Anger Management? Most men who batter have no problem controlling anger when they are angry at a boss, or a banker, or a police officer. Usually they will stop an assault if a child, parent, or neighbor enters the room.
20 Is Intervention Effective? Most who re-offend do so early in programs/or while on waiting list Modest effectiveness in general Only 6 randomized studies to date 2 - small positive effects - 4 - no significant effects when using official records No significant effects when using victim reports After 5 years, 75% of partners/victims of completers report feeling safe!
Reasons for Small Effect of BIPs Unidentified and untreated substance abuse and mental illness Poverty, culture, and “stake in conformity” issues Applying person-level solutions to a societal- level problem Failure to sanction non-compliance No intervention for the really bad guys
22 Cook County Study Study done for Cook County Adult Probation available at : http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/pdf/ResearchRep orts/CookCountyDVInt.pdf http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/pdf/ResearchRep orts/CookCountyDVInt.pdf (Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority’s website) Shows 75% completion rate in Cook Co. and that completion reduces incidence of re-arrest by 39 – 62% Class predicts completion better than disorders Marital Status, Employment, Education, Income
23 Is Intervention Effective? What works with whom? Culturally-matched Interventions/Facilitators Cognitive Behavioral with more Antisocial Process-oriented with those with “Stake in Society” Combined with case management Victim is best predictor!
How can prosecutors & defense attorneys help in the process?
Prosecutors can… Be understanding when a victim chooses not to proceed The victim knows best! She maybe safer with the perpetrator Encourage victim to use DV Advocates and Victim Services Include in sentence or plea Mandate to PAIP rather than jail or anger managment Mandate to additional services
Public Defenders can… Understand SOP of Men who Batter Minimize Deny & Blame It’s her or the drugs or …. “you know how women are” Encourage defendant to….(at plea or sentencing) Attend PAIP rather than jail or anger management Enroll in Additional services as needed