Presentation on theme: "Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination www.calgaryceliac.com The Gluten-Free Diet and The Prevention of Cross-Contamination Culinary Arts Version Celiac."— Presentation transcript:
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination The Gluten-Free Diet and The Prevention of Cross-Contamination Culinary Arts Version Celiac Disease
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination The Nature of Celiac Disease Celiac Disease (CD) is an autoimmune disease. It is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. The autoimmune response occurs in the gut. It is triggered by Gluten, a storage protein in wheat, barley and rye.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination The onset of CD can occur at any age. All people diagnosed with CD will have intestinal damage. The villi become inflamed, flattened and disappear. Nutrients, including carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins and minerals, can no longer be absorbed. This leads to malnutrition and other serious health problems. The Nature of Celiac Disease
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Genetic Properties Celiac Disease is a true autoimmune disease The genetic predisposition (HLA), the exogenous trigger (Gluten) and the autoantigen (tTG) are all known CD is currently the only autoimmune disease for which all three factors are known Unlike many other autoimmune diseases, the cause of the disease has been identified
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Frequency of Occurrence CD occurs in almost 1% of the population. CD occurs in 1 in 22 first degree relatives. Canadian Research per cent CD occurs in 1 in 39 second degree relatives. Canadian Research 5-12 percent CD occurs in 1 in 56 people with gastro- intestinal symptoms. CD occurs in 1 in 133 of the ‘not at risk population.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Diagnosing Celiac Disease A series of serologic tests can assist in the preliminary screening for CD An intestinal biopsy must be performed to confirm the diagnosis of CD The Gluten-Free Diet should never be started without an accurate diagnosis of Celiac Disease
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination The only treatment for Celiac Disease is a STRICT GLUTEN-FREE DIET FOR LIFE Even small amounts of gluten can be harmful to people with Celiac Disease and can cause continued small bowel damage. Treatment of CD
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination What Happens When We’re Glutened? The accidental ingestion of gluten does not cause the profound anaphylactic response that is common with peanuts and other allergens.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Many people with CD will have immediate intestinal symptoms. Many will have headaches or other non- intestinal symptoms. Many will have delayed symptoms. Many will have no symptoms but will still have intestinal damage which can lead to other illnesses. What Happens When We’re Glutened?
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination What Happens When We’re Glutened? The progression of damage to the villi
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination What Happens When We’re Glutened?
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination What Happens When We’re Glutened?
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Major Concerns Increase Awareness Safe Ingredients Hidden Sources of Gluten CROSS CONTAMINATION
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination What is Gluten ? Gluten refers to several different cereal grain storage proteins, or prolamins. Gliadin in wheat Secalin in rye Hordein in barley
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Gluten Containing Grains & Grain Products BarleyBulgar Cereal Binding CouscousDurum Einkorn EmmerFiller Farro Graham flourKamut Malt Oats*Roux Rye SemolinaSpelt(Dinkel) Triticale Wheat Oats are currently excluded from the gluten-free diet because of the high risk of contamination from gluten containing grains
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Other Gluten-free Foods Fresh meat, poultry, fish and seafood Fresh vegetables and fruits Eggs Cheese and other dairy All products made with gluten-free ingredients
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination The Questionable Products Baking powder Beverage mixes Bouillon cubes Cheese spreads Condiments Dried fruit Dry roasted nuts Flavourings Herbal teas HPP/HVP Ice cream and yogurt Icing sugar products Imitation seafood Licorice and candies Marinades and sauces Modified food starch Pilaf mixes Processed meats Puddings Rice and soy beverages Salad dressing Seasonings Seasoned fries Self basting poultry Smarties* Soups and broths Soy sauce Worcestershire sauce
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Preventing Contamination & Cross-contamination When preparing a gluten-free meal, it is important to prevent contamination of the gluten-free foods with gluten- containing food particles and residues. Even small amounts of gluten can result in continued intestinal damage for people with CD and DH Care must be taken to ensure that gluten-free foods remain gluten-free.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Preventing Contamination & Cross-contamination Select a preparation area that is separate from other food preparation areas. Air-borne flour and other gluten- containing particles can contaminate gluten-free foods. Ensure all preparation surfaces, cooking surfaces and cooking utensils have been thoroughly cleaned, including counter top, meat slicer, grill surface, cutting boards, bowls, knives, utensils, thermometers, cleaning cloths.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Use dedicated pots, pans, utensils and cutting boards whenever possible. Rolled edge pans are easier to clean. Scrub with soap and water to ensure removal of gluten-containing particle. Disinfect according to current standards of practice. Preventing Contamination & Cross-contamination
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Follow impeccable hand washing practices. Use sanitary gloves for food preparation and change them before handling GF foods. Ensure the powder used is gluten-free. Even powder-free gloves can have trace amounts of powder. Become knowledgeable about special needs diets and menu selections. Educational programs are offered through many of the local chapters of the Canadian Celiac Association. Preventing Contamination & Cross-contamination
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Ensure all ingredients are gluten-free. Check product ingredients regularly. Manufacturers and suppliers can change ingredients without notice. Ensure that anti-caking and flow agents are GF. These agents may not be identified in the ingredient lists. Use boldly labeled, air tight containers for all products designated as GF. Prepare GF meals before other menu selections Preventing Contamination & Cross-contamination
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Preventing Contamination & Cross-contamination Clean utensils must be used for each condiment, butter, sauce and all other items. Use individual portions and/or squeeze bottles. Deep fryer oil previously used for gluten- containing foods is unsafe for gluten-free cooking. Fresh water must always be used for boiling, poaching or steaming.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Preventing Contamination & Cross-contamination Use the top oven racks. Use caution with convection ovens. Use toaster bags to prevent contamination of GF bread products. Arrange buffet tables with gluten-free selections first and separated from the gluten-containing selections. Label them. Bulk bins can be a source for cross- contamination.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Using Safe Alternatives Many common food products have safe alternatives: Eg. Soy sauce. Safe thickening agents can be used in place of flour: Eg. Potato starch, tapioca starch. Select pure spice blends rather than seasoning blends that may contain gluten-containing fillers.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Using Safe Alternatives Many foods start out gluten-free and are glutened in menu preparation: Eg. Salads Many food items have gluten-free alternatives: Eg. Pizza shells, pasta Develop clearly identified gluten-free alternatives as part of a standard menu.
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Baking Gluten-Free Gluten-free baking can be very challenging Gluten is the ingredient that allows bread to rise and stay moist and fluffy Gluten-free products can be dry and dense Where do you start to make it great???
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Baking Gluten-Free Use a combination of gluten-free flours Course flours require more leavening than wheat flour – 2 ½ tsp B Powder per cup Using buttermilk in place of regular milk gives a lighter texture Add more egg or oil to increase moisture Gelatin also increases moisture
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Baking Gluten-Free Xanthan gum can be used as a stabilizer and binder – 1 tsp per cup Guar gum is also a stabilizer and is less expensive Guar gum is best used in baking that doesn’t require yeast Bake in small portions at a lower temperature for a longer time Use dull or dark pans to absorb heat for better browning
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Baking Gluten-Free Adding chips, nuts and dried fruits improves the flavour Let non-yeast doughs rest for 30 minutes before baking Cornstarch and tapioca can be used to thicken sauces and fruit pies Let pancake batter rest for 15 minutes before cooking. Do not stir before use
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Baking Gluten-Free Brown rice cereal or flaked rice can be substituted for oatmeal Instant potato flakes and crushed rice cakes can be substituted for bread crumbs Store baked products in plastic bags while still warm Freeze baked products to minimize loss of moisture and flavour
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Bread and Buns Use fresh ingredients Be exact in your measurements Use ingredients at room temperature Different brands and grinds of rice flour may require a variation in the amount of liquid Whipping the eggs or egg substitutes gives a better texture
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Bread and Buns Unflavoured gelatin adds spring to the texture of the bread A teaspoon of vinegar or dough enhancer helps the yeast to work Changes in weather and season can affect bread making. It may be necessary to adjust ingredients Gluten-free dough has the consistency of thick cake batter Gluten-free bread doesn’t require kneading
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Bread and Buns It is not necessary to let gluten-free bread rise twice as there is no gluten to develop Gluten-free dough likes to be cuddled – use small loaf pans Place a pan of water in the oven during baking Allow the bread to cool before slicing. Separate slices with wax paper before freezing
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Cookies Use glutenous flour for ½ the flour requirement in a recipe Use crumbled sliced almonds, flaked GF cereal or textured soy protein to replace oatmeal For delicate butter cookies, choose a flour mix with more starch (tapioca or potato) and sweet rice
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Cookies Xanthan and/or guar gum are seldom needed in cookie dough Add an extra egg to prevent crumbling Rice bran and rice polish add flavour, fiber and nutrition
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination Pastry GF pastry does not toughen when rolled repeatedly When mixed, pastry should be very moist Wrap in plastic and chill several hours, until cold and firm Use white rice flour to flour the surface for pastry rolling When used for quiche, bake the unfilled shell 5 minutes before filling
Avoiding Gluten and Cross Contamination For More Information Our website: National website: Links to other chapter and resource websites Jo Anne Murray