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Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Guilt-Free Chocolate... Chocolate Manufacturing and Food Processing.

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Presentation on theme: "Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Guilt-Free Chocolate... Chocolate Manufacturing and Food Processing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Guilt-Free Chocolate... Chocolate Manufacturing and Food Processing

2 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Learning Objectives u By the end of this lesson students will –be able to describe the industrial process for chocolate manufacture from “bean to bar” –be able to identify economic and political issues involved in the trade of cacao –be able to identify major chocolate manufacturing companies –be able to identify benefits of sustainable cocoa cultivation –be able to list some Good Manufacturing Practices for food handling

3 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Learning about Chocolate u History of Chocolate u Economics of Chocolate u Engineering of Chocolate u EPSI: Chocolate Cookie Project

4 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Chocolate Manufacturers Association “CMA's mission is to serve as the voice of the American chocolate industry and through research, education and public information, works to ensure a continued supply of cocoa and increased consumption of high value and quality chocolate products for the American people.”

5 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa u ADM Cocoa –http://www.admworld.com/pro ducts/cocoa.htm u Barry Callebaut USA, Inc. –http://www.barry- callebaut.com/ u Blommer Chocolate Company –http://www.blommer.com / u Guittard Chocolate Company –http://www.guittard.com/ u Hershey Foods Corporation –http://www.hersheys.com u M&M/MARS –http://global.mms.com/us/index.jsp u Nestle Chocolate & Confections –http://www.nestle.com/ u World's Finest Chocolate –http://www.worldsfinestchocolate.com/ u Wilbur Chocolate, a Cargill Foods Company –http://www.wilburchocolate.com/index. html

6 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Chocolate world u The cocoa plant is scientifically named Theobroma cacao. –Theobroma -- Greek word: 'food of the gods' –cacao -- from Aztec word: cacahuatl. u Toltecs, Mayas, and Aztecs first enjoyed the fruit of the divine cocoa tree. u Spain and Italy helped introduce the cocoa bean to the rest of the world. u “Today cocoa is an international trading commodity” Barry Callebaut, USA Inc. 2002

7 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa History of Chocolate Conquistidor, Don Hernan Cortez took cocoa from Mexico to Spain Francesco Carletti brought cocoa from Central America to Italy Cocoa press invented in Holland by Van Houten Alkalization process invented First milk chocolate produced

8 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Cocoa Producing Countries Barry Callebaut, USA Inc Near the equator, high T and high humidity

9 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Cocoa producers u Amazon basin –20% of world Cocoa is from Central and South America u Phillipines and West Indies –17th and 18th Centuries u West Africa –19th Century –Ivory Coast & Nigeria

10 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Chocolate Consumers Barry Callebaut, USA Inc. 2002

11 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa From Crops to Commodity u Grow cocoa trees for 4 months u Open and skin fruit u Harvest beans u Ferment on banana leaves –microbes feed on sugar and pulp on beans –beans turn brown u Dried and turned for 14 days u Sampled for Quality u Shipped and traded on international market

12 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Markets for Cocoa Beans Open Do not integrate chocolate in to their own products –Cargill –ADM –Barry Callebaut Captive Produce chocolate for their own products –Cadbury –Nestle –Kraft Jacobs Suchard Barry Callebaut, USA Inc. 2002

13 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Economics of Cocoa u Small Farms -- 90% of world cocoa on 5-10 acre farms u Market price impacts plant quality u Challenges with pests and disease impact market.

14 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Trading Cocoa u Supply and Outlook -- Ivory Coast produces the most cocoa. Weather issues during harvesting will increase the price of cocoa futures. –http://www.chocolateandcocoa.org/Supply/supplyindex.htmhttp://www.chocolateandcocoa.org/Supply/supplyindex.htm u Demand -- Most cocoa is consumed in the U.S. and Europe, but Asian countries are beginning to import cocoa. –http://www.chocolateandcocoa.org/Supply/demand_prices.ht mhttp://www.chocolateandcocoa.org/Supply/demand_prices.ht m

15 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Political Issues u The IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the World Bank, have attempted to help poor countries with international debts by altering the world cocoa market. u Recently, Ivory Coast opted for “liberalization” removing government controls on the cocoa market. A power struggle over control of the market ensued. u Issues of slavery, child slavery, and child labor in the Ivory Coast cocoa industries continue to worry chocolate manufacturers.

16 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Dealing with Slavery... “Persuaded by anti-slavery groups and the threat of U.S. legislation, chocolate manufacturers [in 2001] endorsed a four-year plan to identify and address instances of abusive child labor in cocoa-growing countries in West Africa. They signed a protocol, which sets a series of deadlines through 2005 to lay groundwork for monitoring and remedying abusive forms of child labor in those countries.”

17 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Chocolate Manufacturing and Food Processing Guilt-Free Chocolate... From Bean to Bar

18 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa “Bean to Bar” Process u Clean and inspect beans -- –de-dusted –de-stoned –passed through metal detector u Roast beans – sterilizes and adds aroma u Break beans and grind “nibs” –separate nibs and shells –sizing and milling u Prepare cocoa mass –Squeeze out cocoa butter u Fine Rolling –cocoa mass + sugar = dark chocolate batter –cocoa mass + sugar + milk= milk chocolate batter u Conching –Kneading machine –removes water and acid –add fat and cocoa butter –pump to storage tanks u Tempering –heat treatment –brings cocoa butter to stable crystal form

19 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Watch Chocolate Processing... u Note Major Pieces of Equipment u Note Safety Issues in the Facilities u What household items, analogous to the processing equipment, would enable you to make your own personal chocolate?

20 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Brainstorm u List food-handling considerations in your home? u How might these principles be implemented on an industrial scale?

21 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa GMP -- regulations developed by the FDA under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act Require that “manufacturers, processors, and packagers of drugs, medical devices, some food, and blood take proactive steps to ensure that their products are safe, pure, and effective.” GMP regulations address issues including recordkeeping, personnel qualifications, sanitation, cleanliness, equipment verification, process validation, and complaint handling. Good Manufacturing Practices

22 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Elements of GMP u “The plant management shall take all reasonable measures and precautions to ensure the following:” –Disease Control –Cleanliness –Education and Training –Supervision

23 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa GMP -- Cleanliness u “Wearing outer garments that protect against the contamination of food, food-contact surfaces, or food packaging materials.” u “Maintaining adequate personal cleanliness.” u “Washing hands thoroughly (and sanitizing if necessary)” u “Removing all unsecured jewelry and other objects that might fall into food” u “Maintaining gloves, if they are used in food handling, in an intact, clean, and sanitary condition” u “Wearing, where appropriate, in an effective manner, hair nets, headbands, caps, beard covers, or other effective hair restraints”

24 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa GMP -- Cleanliness u “Storing clothing or other personal belongings in areas other than where food is exposed or where equipment or utensils are washed.” u “Confining the following to areas other than where food may be exposed or where equipment or utensils are washed: eating food, chewing gum, drinking beverages, or using tobacco.” u “Taking any other necessary precautions to protect against contamination of food, with microorganisms or foreign substances including, but not limited to, perspiration, hair, cosmetics, tobacco, chemicals, and medicines applied to the skin.”

25 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Coating Cookies with Chocolate EPSI Team Project cations/bakery/chocolate_coatings.html

26 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa EPSI -- Cookie Coating Project u Coat cookies with chocolate. u Estimate average and standard deviation of cookie mass, before and after coating. u Estimate average and standard deviation of the coating thickness. u Calculate nutritional value of the new cookie product, including an ingredient list. u Write a report of your project activities. u Present your project results in class.

27 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Available equipment and supplies u Cookies, chocolate chips, chocolate almond bark u Bowls, trays, wax paper, and kitchen utensils u Microwaves u Kitchen scales and calipers u Refrigerator

28 Engineering Problem Solving I 59:005, The University of Iowa Project Assignments Project 2: Chocolate- Coated Cookies Progress Report (team) Oct. 14 ( by 5 pm) 10 Written Report (team) Oct. 21 (class)50 Teamwork (ind)Oct. 21 (class)20 Presentation (team) Nov. TBA (in- class) 25


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