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© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter.

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Presentation on theme: "© Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter."— Presentation transcript:

1 © Copyright 2011 by the National Restaurant Association Educational Foundation (NRAEF) and published by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 5 Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

2 Receiving and Storage Equipment  The receiving area is the first stop in the flow of food. It is where all food deliveries enter the restaurant or foodservice operation.  Before accepting the product, an employee checks the quality and quantity of the items ordered against those being delivered.  After food is delivered and received into the receiving area, it must be stored properly.  Dry goods must be stored at least 6 inches off the floor on stainless-steel shelving.  Perishable goods are stored in refrigerators and freezers Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

3 Knives & Knife Care  Foodhandlers use knives in most cooking preparations, from slicing to chopping to shredding.  Each knife is designed for a specific purpose.  A good knife is made of stainless steel because it is very durable and stays sharp for a long time.  A knife has two main parts, the blade and the handle.  The blade is made of metal and is either forged or stamped Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques  The blade of the knife has several parts:

4 Knives & Knife Care (cont.) Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques  Honing is the regular maintenance required to keep knives in the best shape.  A sharpening stone is used to grind and hone the edges of steel tools and implements.  A steel is a long metal rod that is used to remove the microscopic burrs that are created as a knife is used.

5 Hand Tools and Small Equipment  Every restaurant and foodservice kitchen has small hand tools and small equipment called smallware.  Hand tools are designed to aid in cutting, shaping, moving, or combining foods.  Hand tools are easy to use, and are an essential part of food prepreparation Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

6 Measuring Utensils Measuring utensils are widely used in restaurant and foodservice kitchens to measure everything from spices to liquids to dry goods like oats, grains, sugar, and flour. They can also measure temperature Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

7 Pots and Pans  Pots and pans are available in many shapes and sizes and are made of a variety of materials, such as copper, cast iron, chrome, stainless steel, and aluminum, with or without nonstick coating.  In general, pots are larger vessels with straight sides and two loop handles. Pans tend to be shallower with one long handle and either straight or sloped sides Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

8 Processing Equipment: Cutters and Mixers  Cutters and mixers are used to cut meats and vegetables and to mix sauces and batters.  Always use safety guards when using cutting machines.  Employees must be properly trained and informed of all precautionary measures that should be taken when operating the equipment.  It is illegal for minors to use, clean, or maintain cutters or mixers Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

9 Steamers & Broilers  Steamers are used in restaurant and foodservice operations to cook vegetables and grains. They allow the food to come into direct contact with the steam, heating the food very quickly. Cooking with steam is a very efficient method of cooking Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques  Using very intense direct heat, broilers cook food quickly. For broilers, the heat source is above the food.

10 Ranges, Griddles, Fryers, and Ovens Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques  The range is usually the most frequently utilized piece of equipment in restaurant and foodservice kitchens. Ranges are cooking units with open heat sources. Ranges come in multiple sizes and variations suitable to the specific needs of an individual operation.  There are many types of ovens available to suit a variety of restaurant and foodservice operations. They vary in size and method of operation.

11 Holding and Serving Equipment  Once the food arrives in the holding and service area, it is usually ready to be presented to the guest.  Though most of the hard work in preparing a meal has already been done, the final touches made in the holding and service areas are important to delivering a quality meal Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

12 Section 5.1 Summary  Receiving equipment includes receiving tables/area, scales, and utility carts. After food is received, it is stored on shelving or in refrigerators and freezers.  Pre-preparation equipment includes knives, measuring utensils, hand tools and small equipment, and pots and pans.  Pots come in many shapes and sizes and are made of copper, cast iron, stainless steel, and aluminum, with or without nonstick coating.  Pans also come in many shapes and sizes.  Preparation equipment includes cutters and mixers, steamers, broilers, ranges, griddles, fryers, and ovens.  Holding and serving equipment can include the bain-marie, food warmer/steam table, hot-holding cabinet, coffee maker, tea maker, ice machine, hot box, chafing dishes, and espresso machines Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

13 Mise en Place  Mise en place refers to the preparation and assembly of ingredients, pans, utensils, equipment, or serving pieces needed for a particular dish or service.  The goal of pre-preparation is to do as much of the work in advance without any loss in ingredient quality  The basic elements of mise en place—knife cuts, flavorings, herbs and spices, and basic preparations—are the building blocks of a professional chef ’s training. These methods and techniques will be essential throughout a professional career. 13 Getting ready to cook is called mise en place. Mise en place is French for “to put in place.” 5.2 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

14 Knife Basics  Usually, cleaning and cutting raw foods is one of the first steps of mise en place. Fresh vegetables, fruit, and meat often require trimming and cutting.  To use most knives, hold the food on the cutting board with one hand and hold the knife by its handle with the other.  There are three basic knife grips. In every grip, the hand that is not holding the knife, called the guiding hand, prevents slippage and helps to control the size of the cut.  When using a knife, move the knife in a smooth downward and forward slicing motion. With practice, a cook is able to cut food in many different ways, increase knife speed, and become more accurate with cuts Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

15 Seasoning and Flavoring  A seasoning is something that enhances the flavor of an item without changing the primary flavor of the dish. They must be used with care to prevent overuse, but seasoning generally should be added at the start of the dish to create a depth of flavor.  There are four basic types of seasoning ingredients:  Salts  Peppers  Sugars  Acids  Flavor refers to the way a food tastes, as well as its texture, appearance, doneness, and temperature. A flavoring should enhance the base ingredients of the dish, or it can also bring another flavor to the product Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

16 Herbs and Spices  Herbs and spices are important ingredients used to enhance and add to the flavor of food:  Herbs are the leaves, stems, or flowers of an aromatic plant.  Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds, or berries of an aromatic plant.  Storing spices and herbs properly helps to keep them fresh and flavorful. Heat, light, and air all speed the loss of flavor and color.  Add volatile spices and herbs toward the end of cooking to provide the full benefit of their aromas and flavors.  Some herbs and spices must be used carefully because their dominant flavors can overpower the flavor of the dish.  Use salt and pepper at the beginning of the cooking process to ensure that sauces, butter, or other liquids will not wash off the seasoning Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

17 Pre-preparation Techniques  Mise en place also involves pre-preparing certain ingredients that need to be refined before they are ready for use at the time of preparation.  Basic cooking techniques in pre-preparation include separating eggs, whipping egg whites, setting up a bain- marie, and making parchment liners for pans.  Blanching is another pre-preparation technique. It is a moist-heat method of cooking that involves cooking in a liquid or with steam just long enough to cook the outer portion of the food. The food is immediately placed in ice water to stop carryover cooking, also referred to as shocking Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

18 Section 5.2 Summary  Mise en place is French for “to put in place.”  To use knives properly, hold the food on the cutting board with one hand and hold the knife by its handle with the other.  In every grip, the hand that is not holding the knife prevents slippage and helps to control the size of the cut.  A seasoning is something that enhances the flavor of an item without changing the primary flavor of the dish.  Flavor refers to the way a food tastes, as well as its texture, appearance, doneness, and temperature.  Basic cooking techniques in pre-preparation include separating eggs, whipping egg whites, setting up a bain- marie, making parchment liners for pans, and blanching and shocking Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

19 Heat Transfer  Conduction is the transfer of heat from one item to another when the items come into direct contact with each other.  Convection is the transfer of heat caused by the movement of molecules (in the air, water, or fat) from a warmer area to a cooler one.  Radiation does not require physical contact between the heat source and the food being cooked. Instead, heat moves by way of microwave and infrared waves.  Infrared heat is created when the heat from a source is absorbed by one material and then radiated out to the food. 19 Heat is a type of energy. When two items of different temperatures have contact, energy, in the form of heat, transfers from the warmer item to the cooler until they both reach the same temperature. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

20 Dry-Heat Cooking Methods  Broiling is a rapid cooking method that uses high heat from a source located above the food.  Grilling is a very simple dry-heat method that is excellent for cooking smaller pieces of food.  Roasting and baking are techniques that cook food by surrounding the items with hot, dry air in the oven.  Griddling is cooking a food item on a hot, flat surface (known as a griddle) or in a relatively dry, heavy-bottomed fry pan or cast-iron skillet.  The sautéing method cooks food rapidly in a small amount of fat over relatively high heat. The fat adds to the flavor. 20 In dry-heat cooking, food is cooked either by direct heat, like on a grill, or by indirect heat in a closed environment, like in an oven. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

21 Dry-Heat Cooking Methods (cont.)  Stir-fry is a cooking method closely related to sauté. Like sauté, it is a quick-cooking, dry-heat method.  To pan-fry food, cook it in an oil over less intense heat than that used for sautéing or stir-frying.  To deep-fry food, bread or batter coat it, immerse (completely cover) it in hot fat, and fry it until it is done:  A breading has the same components as batter, but they are not blended together. A standard breading would be seasoned all-purpose flour and an egg and buttermilk dip.  The “float” of the item, the point when the item rises to the surface of the oil and appears golden brown, indicates doneness.  Recovery time is the amount of time it takes oil to reheat to the correct cooking temperature once food is added.  The smoking point is the temperature at which fats and oils begin to smoke, which means that the fat has begun to break down Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

22 Moist-Heat Cooking Methods  When simmering, completely submerge food in a liquid that is at a constant, moderate temperature.  When poaching, cook food between 160°F and 180°F. The surface of the poaching liquid should show some motion, but no air bubbles should break the surface.  Blanching is a variation of boiling. When blanching, partially cook food and then finish it later.  Steaming is cooking food by surrounding it in steam in a confined space such as a steamer basket, steam cabinet, or combi-oven. Direct contact with the steam cooks the food. 22 Moist-heat cooking techniques produce food that is delicately flavored and moist, which can be served as a separate course or used as a sauce base. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

23 Combination-Cooking Methods  In braising, first sear the food item in hot oil, and then partially cover it in enough liquid to come halfway up the food item. Then cover the pot or pan tightly and finish the food slowly in the oven or on the stovetop until it is tender.  When stewing, first cut the main food item into bite-sized pieces, and either blanch or sear them. As with braising, cook the food in oil first, and then add liquid. Stewing requires more liquid than braising. Cover the food completely while it is simmering. 23 When the best method for preparing certain food is a combination of dry-heat and moist-heat cooking methods, it is called combination cooking. 5.3 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

24 Sous Vide and Microwave Cooking  Sous vide is a method in which food is cooked for a long time, sometimes well over 24 hours. Sous vide is French for “under vacuum.” Rather than placing food in a slow cooker, cooks place food in airtight plastic bags and then place the bags in water that is hot but well below boiling point.  Many foods can be baked or roasted in a microwave oven. However, microwave ovens do not give the same results as convection or conventional ovens because they cook food with waves of energy or radiation— microwaves—rather than with heat Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

25 Determining Doneness & Plating  There are two important qualities that cooks look for to determine a product’s doneness:  Has it achieved the desired texture?  Has it reached the minimum internal temperature it needs to be safe?  Portioning is the amount of an item that is served to the guest.  Overportioning results in increased cost and lower profit from an item.  Plating is the decision about what serving vessel will be used to present the product as well as the layout of the item on the plate or in the bowl and the garnishing of the item.  Garnish enhances the food being served Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

26 Section 5.3 Summary  Heat is transferred to food in three ways:  Conduction  Convection  Radiation  Types of cooking methods include dry-heat cooking, moist-heat cooking, and combination-cooking methods.  Broiling, grilling, roasting, baking, sautéing, pan-frying, stir-frying, and deep-frying are kinds of dry-heat cooking.  Simmering, poaching, blanching, and steaming are techniques used in moist-heat cooking.  Braising and stewing are types of combination cooking.  To determine when food is done cooking, identify if the product has its desired texture and minimum internal temperature Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

27 Healthy Diets  A healthy diet:  Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products  Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts  Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars  Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) are recommended daily amounts of nutrients and energy that healthy people of a particular age range and gender should consume:  Recommended Dietary Allowances are daily nutrient standards established by the U.S. government.  Adequate Intakes identify daily intake levels for healthy people, and are typically assigned when scientists don’t have enough information to set an RDA Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

28 Vegetarian Diets  A vegan follows the strictest diet of all and will consume no dairy, eggs, meat, poultry, fish, or anything containing an animal product or byproduct, including honey. They consume only grains, legumes, vegetables, fruit, nuts, and seeds.  A lacto-vegetarian consumes all the vegan items plus dairy products.  An ovo-vegetarian consumes all vegan foods plus eggs.  A lacto-ovo-vegetarian consumes all the vegan items plus dairy products and eggs. 28 A vegetarian is a person who consumes no meat, fish, or poultry products. There are different types of vegetarians: 5.4 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

29 Dietary Guidelines for Americans  The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 is a document published jointly by the Department of Health and Human Services and the USDA.  This report offers science- based advice for healthy people over the age of 2 about food choices to promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

30 MyPyramid  MyPyramid translates the RDAs and dietary guidelines into the kinds and amounts of food to eat each day.  Nutrition Facts panels help people select the appropriate packaged food products to meet their nutritional needs.  MyPyramid replaces the 1992 Food Guide Pyramid and incorporates the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans  The MyPyramid symbol emphasizes six key themes: Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques 1.Proportionality 2.Variety 3.Physical Activity 4.Moderation 5.Gradual Improvement 6.Personalization

31 Nutrition Labels  Each nutrient on the panel is reported as a percentage of Daily Values (DV).  The DVs are provided in percentages based on a 2000-calorie diet.  The mandatory components on the Nutrition Facts label are:  Serving size and servings per container  Total calories and calories from fat  Total fat and saturated fat  Trans fat  Cholesterol  Sodium  Total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and sugars  Protein  Vitamin A, vitamin C, calcium, and iron Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques

32 The Problem of Obesity 32 A person who is overweight or obese has a weight that is greater than what is generally considered healthy. 5.4 Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques 

33 Section 5.4 Summary  A healthy diet emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat- free or low-fat milk and milk products. It includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. It is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt, and added sugars.  The Dietary Guidelines for Americans offer advice for healthy people over the age of 2 about food choices to promote health and reduce risk for major chronic diseases.  MyPyramid teaches people how to eat a balanced diet from a variety of food groups without counting calories, how to include physical activity in their daily lives, and how to adjust food intake for the amount of activity.  A nutritional label is useful in selecting food for a healthy diet.  Obesity is considered a major health problem. It can be prevented by eating a healthy diet, exercising, and eating fewer calories Chapter 5 | Kitchen Essentials: Part 2—Equipment and Techniques


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