Presentation on theme: "There are at least 24 consonants in some of their realisations, articulations involving the obstruction or narrowing which produce acoustically a noise."— Presentation transcript:
There are at least 24 consonants in some of their realisations, articulations involving the obstruction or narrowing which produce acoustically a noise component
A plosive is a consonant articulation with the following characteristics: 1. One articulator is moved against another so as to form a stricture that allows no air to escape from the vocal tract. The stricture is then total. 2. After the stricture has been formed, it is released, the air is allowed to escape. 3. When the plosive is released the escape of air will produce a noise, loud enough to be heard. This noise is called plosion – a burst of noise.
i) the first: the articulator or articulators move to form the stricture for the plosive - closure phase ii) the second: the compressed air is stopped from escaping - hold phase iii) the third: the articulators used to form the stricture are moved so as to allow air to escape - release phase the fourth: what happens immediately after the third phase – post-release phase
Place of articulation BILABIALALVEOLARVELAR VOICELESS, FORTIS p t k VOICED, LENIS b d g
p and b are bilabial plosive consonants The soft palate is raised, the lips are slightly spread, forming a closure. Lung air is pressed behind the closure during which period the vocal folds are held wide apart for p, but vibrate for all part of the compression stage for b. In the post-release phase for p air escapes through the vocal folds making a sound like h = aspiration p is voiceless, fortis; b is voiced, lenis
In Estonian p is not aspirated and b is unvoiced weak consonant
Exceptions: silent p – cupboard silent b – comb, climb, lamb, bomb doubt, debt ph – usually pronounced f BUT:shepherd - ʃepəd s
Betty Botta bought some butter But she said, ‘’This butter’s bitter! But a bit of better butter Will make my batter better.’’ So she bought a bit of butter Better than the bitter butter And it made her butter better
t and d are alveolar plosive consonants, t is voiceless, fortis and d voiced, lenis t is also aspirated The soft palate is raised. A closure is formed between the tip of the tongue and the alveolar ridge. The air is compressed behind the closure and when the tip of the tongue is quickly removed from the alveolar ridge the air escapes with a kind of plosion. The vocal cords are wide apart for t and vibrating for d
Estonian t and d are formed with the tip of the tongue closer to the upper front teeth Estonian t is not aspirated and d not voiced.
silent t – castle, hasten, mustn’t, Christmas silent d - handsome
Dave didn’t take his date down-town for a drink The tall downcast taxi driver drove tourists to Denver
k and g are velar plosive consonants. k is aspirated, voiceless, fortis and g is voiced, lenis. The soft palate is raised. The obstacle for the air stream is formed by a closure made between the back of the tongue and the soft palate = velum. Lung air is compressed behind this closure during which stage the vocal cords are wide apart for k but vibrate for g. When the back part of the tongue is quickly removed from the soft palate the air escapes with a plosion
In English the back of the tongue is raised considerably higher against the velum than in Estonian. The result is a greater tenseness and characteristic aspiration. In Estonian k is not aspirated and g is not voiced
I take great care to park my grey car at the corner of Curzon Grove The king of Greece came to close the Olympic games
When one of p,t,k is in initial position preceded by s it is unaspirated speak steak skate
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