Presentation on theme: "Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced Fat Italian Sausage Prepared with Oatmeal W.L. Kerr*, S.G. Choi and E.L. Andress** * Dept. of Food Science."— Presentation transcript:
Physical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced Fat Italian Sausage Prepared with Oatmeal W.L. Kerr*, S.G. Choi and E.L. Andress** * Dept. of Food Science and Technology, University of Georgia, Athens,GA 30602 ABSTRACT Reduced fat Italian sausage was prepared with oatmeal at 10, 20, and 30% (w/w), and oatmeal precook times of 0, 2, and 4 minutes. Cook loss and expressible moisture, cutting force and texture profile analysis, color, and consumer sensory analysis were analyzed by response surface methodology. Minimum cook loss occurred at 16.3% oatmeal and 0.76 min precook time, while expressible moisture decreased with increasing oatmeal levels and decreasing precook time. In general, both cutting force and hardness decreased with oatmeal level. Measurements of L*, a*, and b* showed a slightly lighter product, and a shift to more red and yellow cooked product at intermediate oatmeal levels and precook times. For sensory attributes, both oatmeal level and precook time were significant. Greatest flavor and texture likeability were attained with oatmeal levels of 3-12%, and precook times of 1.5-3 minutes. Greatest overall likeability occurred over a region of 0-14% oatmeal, and 1.1-3.3 minutes. OBJECTIVES 1) To evaluate the use of oatmeal in the preparation of low fat sausage 2) To demonstrate how different levels and precooking times affected the properties and likeability of the sausage MATERIALS AND METHODS SAUSAGE PREPARATION Visible fat removed pork loin was ground and mixed with oatmeal and additional seasoning. After mixing, the batter was stuffed into a collagen casing. Oatmeal levels were 0, 10, 20, and 30% Pre-cooking times were 0, 2, and 4 minutes Cooking loss and Expressible Moisture % Cooking loss = [(Mb – Ma)/Mb×100%] (Mb & Ma : Weight before and after cooking sample) % Expressible Moisture = [(Wb – Wa)/wb×100%] (Wb & Wa : Weight before and after compressing sample ) Texture Analysis Cutting force was measured with the Warner-Bratzler shear blade of the TA-XT2i, cut at 4.0mm/s Texture profile (TPA): 1.5cm thick and 1.6cm diameter samples were compressed twice at 2.0mm/s to 50% of their original height.- Hardness, compression, adhesiveness (g.s) were determined. Color For each batch, L, a, and b were determined using a Minolta chromameter before and after cooking Sensory Evaluation Flavor, texture, color, and overall acceptability of the sausages were evaluated Statistical Analysis Treatment differences were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) RESULTS ******************************************************* CONCLUSION A likeable pork sausage can be made in which fat is replaced with up to 15% oatmeal. Such products contain improved flavor and texture as compared to low-fat controls. Higher levels of oatmeal resulted in a product with more cook loss, softer texture, less cohesion, and minor changes in color. Precooking time of the oatmeal is important, particularly to cook loss, cohesiveness, and flavor. ResponseRangeOatmeal p value Precook Time p value Oatmeal* Precook p value Lack of Fit p > F R2R2 Optimal Points A (oatmeal/precook time) %Cooking Loss1.2 –1 3.3 0.031 0.005 0.0038<0.00010.892.07% (16.3/0.7) min %Expr Moisture2.0 - 7.7<0.0001 0.075 0.00440.93NA Cutting Force (g)790 - 1999<0.0001 0.39 0.013 0.0300.86NA Hardness (g)1109 - 4968<0.0001 0.073<0.0001 0.170.96NA Adhesiveness (g s) 0.024 0.22 0.55 0.320.41889 gs (12.9/1.4) max Cohesiveness<0.0001 0.004 0.25 0.0120.830.39 (31.7/2.4) sp L*42.5 - 50.2 0.047 0.20 0.36 0.150.5245.7 (14.7/2.4) sp a*3.86 - 5.28 0.67 0.19 0.14 0.00980.684.86 (14.7/2.43) max b*8.6 - 15.8 0.021 0.41 0.27 0.0890.6212.5 (8.93/2.22) sp Sensory Flavor4.74 - 6.78<0.0001 0.0076<0.0001~17.03 (3.26/3.17) max Sensory Texture4.37 - 7.02<0.0001 0.12 0.0077~16.89 (6.04/2.26) max Sensory Color5.3 - 6.02 0.86 0.0009 0.0013~1NA Overall Likeability 4.51 - 6.79<0.0001 0.0044<0.0001~16.96 (8.05/2.27) max A NA=optimum out of data range, min=minimum, max=maximum, sp=saddle point Figure1. Cooking loss Minimum cook loss(2.1%) was were 16.3% and 0.76min precook time Higher levels of oatmeal and increased precook time produced more cook loss Figure2. Expressible moisture Range was 2 to 7% The response surface showed gradually decreasing values at higher level of oatmeal & shorter precook time Figure 3. Cutting force Cutting force decreased with oatmeal level Oatmeal level was the greatest contribution to decreasing force Cooking loss and Expressible waterTexture Analysis Table1. ANOVA and response surface statistics for sausage properties as a function of oatmeal level and precook time Sensory Evaluation Figure 4. Flavor A maximum value (7.03) was predicted at 3.3 % oatmeal level & 3.2 min precook Figure 5. Texture Maximum texture likeability (6.8) was predicted at 6.04% oatmeal and 2.3min precook time Figure 6. Overall likeability Maximum likeability was predicted at 8.05% oatmeal % 2.27 precook time ** Dept. of Foods and Nutrition, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602 This material is based upon work supported by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Agreement No. 00-51110-9762.