Presentation on theme: "Grain: Breads and Cereal Products. What are some different types of grain? Wheat Corn Rice Barley Oats Rye Grain: kernels, seeds or plants known as cereal."— Presentation transcript:
Grain: Breads and Cereal Products
What are some different types of grain? Wheat Corn Rice Barley Oats Rye Grain: kernels, seeds or plants known as cereal grasses Gain products include: –Bread –Cereal –Rice –Pasta
Grain products are a good source of … Carbohydrates = Energy Incomplete protein B Vitamins for growth and health Iron for healthy blood cells Phosphorus for strong bones and teeth And are typically low in fat, sugar, and sodium This can be affected depending on how they are processed, prepared, and served
Parts of the Grain Kernel Bran: outer covering of the kernel that contains fiber and B vitamins Endosperm: mostly made up of protein and carbohydrates Germ: sprouting section from which a new plant can grow. It contains minerals, B vitamins and fat
Which parts of the grain go in which grain products? Whole Grain: Includes all 3 parts –Includes rice, oatmeal, whole wheat flour products –Contain most of the original nutrients –Good source of fiber Endosperm Only –All-purpose flour –Products are often enriched with vitamin B and iron to make up for all the lost nutrients Bran only – Example Bran Cereal Most are a combination
Principles of Baking
Flour Provides proteins and starch that make up the STRUCTURE of the baked product Structure is created by two proteins found in flour: Gliadin and glutenin When you add water the proteins create GLUTEN which gives strength and elasticity
Types of Flour Bread: contains the most gliadin and glutenin. Strongest and most elastic gluten All-Purpose: gluten in not as strong Cake: least amount of gluten use it for light delicate texture Self-Rising: has a leavening agent and salt added Others: Whole Wheat, potato, buckwheat, Rye, Soy, Rice Store it in a cool dry place, in an airtight container USE THE CORRECT FLOUR FROM THE RECIPE: If you use bread flour for a cake it would be tough and elastic. A bread made from cake flour would not have enough gluten to support the structure of the bread.
Leavening Agents Make a products rise by causing air or gas to be trapped in the mixture, making it light and porous Store leaving agents in a cool, dry place Don’t use after the use buy date, or it may not work correctly
Trapped Air Air is trapped in the mixture Sift Flour Beat eggs or batter cream sugar and butter,
Steam Product must be baked at a high temperature The high heat causes the water in the mixture to turn to steam and the product rises EX: Cream Puffs and Popovers
Chemical Leavening Baking Soda: releases carbon dioxide when combined with an acid and heated –Naturally Acidic Foods: Buttermilk, yogurt, citrus juice Baking Powder: a combination of baking soda and an acid. Releases carbon dioxide when moistened and heated If you do not have Baking Powder: Mix 2 parts cream of tartar and one part baking soda
Yeast Yeast: a microscopic single-celled plant that gives off gas as it grows, It reproduces quickly if it has warmth and moisture (heated in water between degrees) and food ( add a little sugar)
Leavening Agents Leavening Agents work together with gluten As the batter or dough is mixed the gluten strengthens and forms an elastic mesh. The air or gas forms tiny cells or pockets within the mesh When it is baked the heat causes the air and gas to expand causing it to rise
Liquids: Ex: water, milk, fruit juices, eggs, and fats Add Moisture Help form gluten Dissolves ingredients such as baking powder, salt and sugar They can be a leavening agent Steam
Fats and Oils Make products rich and tender The fat coast the flour and causes the dough structure to separate into layers. When you beat fat, air bubbles form and the fat with trap these air bubbles Add flavor and help brown the crust
Fat and Oil Examples: Butter Margarine Vegetable Oil Shortening You cannot interchange liquid and solid fats Store Butter and margarine in the fridge Store Shortening and oil in a cool dry place If oil is refrigerated it thickens and becomes cloudy
Sweetners Gives sweetness to the baked product Helps tenderize Helps crust brown Serves as food for yeast Brown sugar makes product more moist than granulated sugar
Sweetners Examples Granulated sugar ( white table sugar) Brown Sugar: granulated sugar with molasses added Powdered or Confectioner’s sugar (Fine Texture) Honey: liquid sweetener Artificial Sweeteners: only use in recipes if called for
Eggs Leavening agent: Help incorporate air when you beat them Add color, flavor, and richness Contribute to structure: help bind mixture together so they don’t separate
Salt Adds flavor, flavor enhancer Regulates the action of the yeast and keeps it from developing Carbon dioxide too quickly. If there is no salt, dough could be difficult to handle and would result in a poor appearance
Flavorings Chocolate Spices Herbs Extracts: Vanilla and Almond
How ingredients are combined Proper mixing helps to give the desired texture Dough: thick enough to be shaped by hand or cut into shapes EX: Biscuits, cookies, pie crust, and some breads Batter: thin enough to be poured or dropped from a spoon EX: Pancakes, muffins, and cakes
Successful Baking Use exact ingredients: each type of flour, leavening agent and fat works differently and gives a different flavor an texture Measure Accurately: a few drops of an ingredient can be the difference between success and failure Use the correct type and size of pan: if too small it will overflow, if too large it may be thin and will not brown on top Following Mixing Directions Use the correct oven temperature: Too high can cause overbrowning, poor volume and tough texture. Too low can cause pale color, soggy texture, and a sunken center.
How can you be a successful baker?
Setting Oven Temperature Most recipes call for a shiny metal pan If you use a dull pan lower the temperature by 10 degrees If you use a glass pan, lower the temperature by 25 degrees Preheat the oven 10 minutes before you begin
Preparing Pans Some recipes call for greased others ungreased When greasing pans use unsalted shortening, butter, or cooking spray Salt in the butter can cause overbrowning You may also have to flour the pan with makes the product easier to remove since the fat keeps it from soaking into the crust. (Sprinkle 1 T Flour and gently turn and tap the pan until all surfaces are covered. Dump out excess)
Placing Pans in the Oven Wipe sides and bottom to remove any food particles that may burn Air must be able to circulate –If one pan place it in the center –If baking several use 2 racks and stager the pans. Leave at least 1 inch between all pans and between pans and the oven wall.
OneTwo Three Four Pan Placement
Removing Baked Products from the Pan May need to take a knife around the edge of the pan Some should be taken out immediately after removed from the oven Others must cool first Place them on a cooling rack once removed
Storing Bread Store wrapped up or in an air tight container at room temperature Use within a few days or freeze them
Biscuit Method May be rolled out and cut or dropped from a spoon
Doneness: Even shape with smooth and level top Light brown on top, the sides will be a lighter, creamy color The sides should be straight. The biscuits should double in side Under mixed: Low volume and rounded top slightly rough crust Over mixed: low volume and rounded top but the top is smooth. The crumb is tough and compact
Muffin Method Used for muffins, pancakes, waffles, cornbread, and some loaves (Banana Bread) The batter is only mixed enough to moisten the dry ingredients The batter should be lumpy not smooth
Under Mixing: Low volume Flat top Crumb is Course Over Mixing: Irregular shape Peaked top Tough Crust Tunnels Doneness: Crust should be golden brown, slightly rough and shiny The sides of the quick bread should have pulled away slightly from the pan When the top is tapped gently, it should feel firm Muffin Method
Types of Yeast Compressed: made from fresh moist yeast cells, must refrigerate Active Dry: active yeast that has been dried and mad into granules Fast-Rising: highly active yeast Store in cool dry place and refrigerate after opening
Tips to prepare yeast breads Be sure to follow the recipe exactly!!!! Be sure that the water you add the yeast to is between degrees –If it is too cold it will not activate the yeast –If too hot it will kill the yeast
Kneading Done after ingredients have been mixed Helps to develop gluten To knead, press the dough with the heels of the hands, fold it, and turn it. You must repeat this motion until the dough is smooth and elastic
Fermenting Allow you dough to rest in a warm place after kneading During this resting time, the yeast acts upon sugars in the bread to form alcohol and carbon dioxide The alcohol will evaporate and the carbon dioxide will cause the bread to rise
Fermenting The Dough should double in size If you stick two fingers in the dough and the indent remains it has risen enough The ideal temperature for bread to rise is between degrees
Punching the Dough After 1 st rising, you must punch it down to release some carbon dioxide Punch down by firmly punching into the dough Then fold the edge of the dough to the center Next, turn the dough over so the smooth side is on top. After this some dough need to rise a second time
Shaping After punching the dough use a sharp knife to divide it into portions as the recipe directs Allow the divided dough to rest 10 minutes so it will be easier to shape and handle There are a variety of shapes you can make besides a loaf Cover the loaf or shape with a towel and allow it to double in size again in a warm, draft free place.
Baking Times and temperatures will vary depending on the size of dough and shape Place in a hot oven During the first few minutes the dough will rise dramatically this is known as oven spring Some recipes will require you to reduce the temperature after oven spring to preventing overbrowning of the crust
Crust of the Matter Crackly, shiny crust: This is brought about by steam. Boiling water in a cast iron skillet in the bottom of the oven, throwing ice chips into a cast iron skillet in the bottom of your oven, spraying the dough with water before putting it in the oven.You can also use a wash of water with a little cornstarch mixed in during the last five minutes of baking. Soft crust: This is as easy as not introducing extra steam or water. Don’t spray the dough, and don’t make steam. Another way of getting a soft crust and also imparting some flavor is to brush the crust with butter when you remove it from the oven. Golden, shiny crust: Apply an egg wash (egg and a little water beaten together) before baking. Soft, sweet crust: brush with milk with a little sugar dissolved in it before baking. Sweet, sticky crust: brush the crust with simple syrup or honey right when it comes out of the oven Shiny, soft crust: brush the bread with olive oil before and after baking
Cooling Once removed from the oven remove from pan and place on cooling rack Cool the bread before slicing or storing
Characteristics of Yeast Breads Large volume and a smooth rounded top The surface is golden brown The texture should be uniform Crumb is tender and springs back when touched If over or underworked it may have a low volume because carbon dioxide has leaked out If it rises for too long it may over expand and the op of the loaf may be sunken while overhanging on the sides If bread has not risen enough it may have large cracks on the sides of the loaf and the texture is compact.
Other Grain Products Bagels Pita Tortillas Breakfast Cereals Oatmeal Rice Pasta
Rice Types –Long grain: dry and fluffy –Short grain: moister kernels that stick together Types of processed rice: Brown Rice; Whole grain, has a rich nutty flavor and chewy texture Enriched Rice: white rice, has less fiber Instant Rice: precooked, rinsed, and dried. Takes the shortest amount of time Wild Rice: is not really rice, it is the seed of a grass that grows in Minnesota and Canada. Some rice also comes with seasoning mix or sauce
Pasta Comes in over 220 different shapes Pasta dough is made from semolina, which is produced from durum wheat – it gives it is nutty flavor and form shape –Noodles contain eggs for added tenderness You can buy dried, refrigerated or frozen fresh, and frozen cooked pasta
Cooking Pasta and Rice Both products are cooked in water and as they cook they absorb water and swell to double or triple their size For example 1 c of rice becomes 3 cups Undercooked grains are hard or chewy Overcooked grains are soft and sticky Do not rinse grain products before or after cooking because this rinses away valuable nutrients When cooking rice stir as little as possible, stirring scrapes the starch off the grain, making it sticky
Preparing Rice You want tender, fluffy kernels that still hold their shape White rice: 1 part rice 2 parts water –Rice should absorb all the water Brown rice requires the same, but will take twice as long to cook unless you soak it first –Soaking softens the bran so that the rice can absorb the cooking liquid more quickly Instant Rice: add rice to boiling water, remove it from pan and let it absorb
Preparing Pasta Bring water to a boil first Use 2 quarts of water for every 8 oz of pasta You may add 1 t of salt Add the pasta to boiling water. It should remain boiling or pasta may stick together Adding 1 T of oil may keep them from sticking Cook for time designated on container: it depends on the shape Simmer until tender but firm in the center (al dente) and drain. It should be soft but hold its shape Do not rinse after draining or water soluble nutrients can be lost.
Microwave Cooking Typically takes the same amount of time as conventional cooking, because the product needs time to absorb the water They are also more likely to burn or stick be sure to use dishes that are large enough to prevent boil-over's Cover the foods Be sure to allow them to cool before serving (Hot Spots)