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The HUMAN BODY Chapters 31 and 34 Nervous and Endocrine Systems.

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Presentation on theme: "The HUMAN BODY Chapters 31 and 34 Nervous and Endocrine Systems."— Presentation transcript:

1 The HUMAN BODY Chapters 31 and 34 Nervous and Endocrine Systems

2 Chapter 31.1 The Neuron Objectives –Identify the functions of the nervous system –Describe the function of neurons –Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted

3 NERVOUS SYSTEM Function: –Send and receive messages within the body –Respond to stimuli Systems: -Central Nervous System -Peripheral Nervous System

4 Nerve Cells AKA Neurons Neuron- basic unit of structure and function of the nervous system Bundles of neurons form nerves

5 Parts of a Neuron: -Dendrite -Cell Body -Axon -Myelin sheath (speeds up impulses) -Axon Terminals

6 Types of Neurons Sensory Neurons: Impulse from sense organ to spinal cord/brain Motor Neurons: Impulse from brain/spinal cord to muscles and glands Interneurons: Connect sensory and motor neurons

7 Nerve Transmission Messages are electrical and chemical signals An electric charge is conducted down a neuron ( Dendrite to axon ) –Axon is covered in an insulating layer called a myelin sheath to speed up impulses As it reaches the end of the axon, chemicals ( neurotransmitters ) are released across the synapse ( gap between neurons ) to the next neuron The message continues neuron to neuron

8 Nerve Impulse Videos Neurons: Nerve Cells Describe the path of nerve transmission that allows the batter to hit a ball. Reflexes How is a reflex different from the example of the batter hitting a ball in the previous video clip?

9 Check-in What is the function of the nervous system? –Send and receive messages and respond to stimuli Basic unit of structure and function of nervous system –Neuron (nerve cell) Part of neuron that receives the impulse –Dendrite

10 Check-in Type of neuron that sends message from sense organ to spinal cord/brain –Sensory neuron Type of neuron that connects sensory and motor neurons –Interneuron

11 Chapter 31.2 Central Nervous System Objectives –Discuss the functions of the brain and spinal cord –Discuss the effects of drugs on the brain

12 Central Nervous System Brain- control center; transmits and receives messages –Cerebrum –Cerebellum –Brain Stem (midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata.) Spinal Cord- connects brain with rest of the nervous system

13 Brain function fun! The Brain

14 Addiction and the Brain Dopamine – neurotransmitter released with pleasurable activities Addictive drugs cause large release of dopamine (resulting in “high”) Brain reacts by reducing number of receptors for dopamine  normal activities no longer produce the pleasure they once did

15 Check-in Part of brain that controls balance –Cerebellum Part of brain that controls heart rate –Brain stem (medulla oblongata) Part of brain that controls thinking –Cerebrum (frontal lobe) Part of brain that controls body temperature –Hypothalamus

16 Check-in Neurotransmitter associated with pleasure –Dopamine Why do addictive drugs create a cycle in which more and more is needed to get the “high”? –Because brain responds to excess dopamine released when they are taken by decreasing the number of dopamine receptors

17 Chapters 31.3 and 31.4 Peripheral Nervous System & Senses Objectives –Discuss the functions of the sensory division of the peripheral nervous system –Identify the five sense organs and the sensory receptors associated with each –Discuss the functions of the motor division of the peripheral nervous system

18 Peripheral Nervous System Link between the central nervous system and the rest of the body –Network of nerves throughout the body *Made of many neurons

19 Sensory Division Transmits impulses from sense organs to central nervous system Uses sensory receptors –Chemoreceptors –Photoreceptors –Mechanoreceptors –Thermoreceptors –Pain receptors

20 SENSES Vision- eyes Hearing and Balance- ears Smell and taste- nose and mouth Touch- skin

21 Optical Illusions Illusions

22 Motor Division Transmits impulses from central nervous system to muscles or glands Somatic nervous system: regulates activities under conscious control Autonomic nervous system: regulates activities that are automatic or involuntary

23 Check-in Peripheral Nervous System Sensory Division Impulses from sense organs to CNS Motor Division Impulses from CNS to muscles/glands Somatic Conscious control Autonomic Involuntary control

24 Check-in Hearing/balance Smell Taste Touch Vision Chemoreceptor Mechanoreceptor Pain receptor Photoreceptor Thermoreceptor

25 Chapter 34.1 and 34.2 Endocrine System Objectives –Describe the structure and function of the endocrine system –Identify the functions of the major endocrine glands

26 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM Function- produce chemical messengers (hormones) from glands to regulate certain body activities

27 What are hormones? Glands? Hormone: chemical messenger Gland: organ that produces and releases a substance Exocrine: release substances out of body or into digestive tract Endocrine: release hormones directly into blood

28 Glands of Endocrine System Head Region: -Pituitary: controls other glands -Pineal Gland: regulates sleep and wake cycle, along with other basic functions -Hypothalamus: controls secretions of the pituitary gland (link between endocrine and nervous system)

29 Glands of the Endocrine System Neck Region: -Thyroid: regulates metabolism (rate at which food is turned into energy) -Parathyroids: maintains homeostasis in blood calcium levels

30 Glands of the Endocrine System Abdominal Region: -Adrenals: helps body prepare for and deal with stress (fight or flight) -Pancreas: Releases insulin and glucagon to regulate level of glucose in blood

31 Glands of the Endocrine System Reproductive Region: -Ovaries (females): produce eggs and estrogen to create female characteristics -Testes (males): produce sperm and testosterone to create male characteristics

32 Check-in Controls the pituitary gland –Hypothalamus Regulates metabolism –Thyroid Regulates sleep/wake cycle –Pineal Controls other glands –Pituitary

33 Check-in Produces eggs and estrogen –Ovary Helps deal with stress (fight or flight) –Adrenal Maintain blood calcium levels –Parathyroid Regulates blood glucose/sugar levels –Pancreas

34 Citations Neurons: Nerve Cells. Cochran, Video Segment. 23 April Reflexes. Cochran, Video Segment. 23 April The Brain. Cochran, Video Segment. 23 April


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