2CakesAre created from liquid batters with high fat and sugar contents.Ingredients are classified by function:ToughenersTenderizersMoistenersDriersLeavenersFlavorings
3Cake Mixing Methods The goal of mixing cake batter is: to combine ingredients uniformlyincorporate air cellsdevelop proper textureCake Mixing Methods are divided into two categories:High fat, whose structure relies on creamed fat and includes butter cakes and high-ratio cakesEgg foam, whose structure relies on whipped eggs and includes genoise, spongecakes, angel food and chiffon cakes
5Creaming Used for butter cakes & pound cakes. The ingredients should be room temperature, approx 70°F (21°C).Fat must be beaten until light & fluffy.The eggs must be added in small portions, with each one fully absorbed before the next one is added.The dry & liquid ingredients should be added alternatively to ensure the batter can absorb all of the liquid.
6Two StageUsed when = higher proportion of of sugar than flour by weight.High-ratio emulsified shortening is used to help absorb the liquid.Leavened by a chemical agent rather than use of whip.
7Genoise Egg FoamWhole eggs are whipped until light and fluffy with sugar.No chemical leaveners.Slightly warming the egg mixture helps improve the volumeGenoise with melted butter, will be more tender because they shorten gluten strands.Dry and usually soaked with flavor: liqueur, sugar syrup.
8Sponge Whip egg yolks and other ingredients. Egg whites are whipped with portion of sugar to form stiff peaks & fold into batter.Leavened with air but chemical leaveners can be added.As a genoise, oil or melted butter can be added.
9Angel Food Made with a large quantity of egg whites. Made in ungreased pans.Does not have chemical leavener.Contain no fat = low in calories.Not frosted typically.Topped with fruit, chocolate glaze or simple icing, whipped cream, etc.
10Chiffon Contains egg yolks and vegetable oil, increasing richness. Baked in an ungreased pan.Can be frosted with light butter cream or whip cream or topped with glaze.Lemon and orange = most traditional.Common to contain chocolate, nuts and other flavors.
11Specific GravityThe amount of air incorporated into a batter relates to the quality, volume and appearance of the finished cake.Too little air make a cake with tight grain and low volume. Too much air and the grain may be coarse.Specific gravity will indicate if a cake batter is properly mixed.It is a measurement of the weight of a mixture in relation to the weight of water.Weight of ingredient / weight of water = specific gravity
12Panning Cake BatterMost pans must be greased or lined to prevent cakes from sticking.Fill pans no more than one half to two thirds full.Insert Table 13.2 p. 457 under the bullet point
13Baking and CoolingAlways preheat the oven before preparing the batter.Test for doneness:Appearance – light golden brown; edges pull away from sides of the pan.Touch – Springs back when lightly pressedCake tester – Comes out clean when inserted in center of cake.Generally allow a cake 10 to 15 minutes in its pan set on a cooling rack after taking it out of the oven.All cakes should be left to cool away from drafts or air currents that might cause them to collapse.
15IcingsOr frostings, are sweet decorative coatings used as filling between layers or, as coating over the top and sides of the cake.There are several types:ButtercreamFoamFudgeFondantGlazeRoyal icingGanache
18Assembling and Decorating Cakes Before a cake can be decorated it must be assembled and coated with icing or frosting.The goal is to fill and stack the cake layers evenly and apply an even coating of icing that is smooth and free of crumbs.Consider the flavor, texture and color of the components used as well as the number of guests served when designing a cake and selecting the filling and icing.
19Cake Decorating Techniques Side masking with nuts, crumbs or crushed cookiesStencils – creating a design on top of a cake with confectioner’s sugar or cocoa powder.Piping on icing in decorative patternsLearning how to make a disposable icing cone from parchment-paper is a great time saver.Covering cake with rolled fondant
20Storing CakesPlain cake layers or sheets can be stored for 2 or 3 days at room temperature when well wrapped.Iced or chilled cakes are usually refrigerated.Any cake containing custard filling, mousse or whipped cream must be refrigerated.Although cakes can be frozen with great success, icings and fillings do not freeze particularly well.
21Convenience Products Packaged cake mixes are tremendous time savers. Results are consistent, although usually softer and more cottony than scratch cakes.Flavor also tends to be more artificial than scratch cakes.Icings, glazing and toppings are available.Icings are often exceedingly sweet and overpowered by artificial flavors and chemical preservatives.The products save time and have consistent results but are more costly than scratch products.