Presentation on theme: "Physics 11, Unit 3 This section: see pages 195 to 205 in text"— Presentation transcript:
1Physics 11, Unit 3 This section: see pages 195 to 205 in text Momentum and ImpulsePhysics 11, Unit 3This section: see pages 195 to 205 in text
2Think about…What do you already know about the following. Think about them as we study this unit…WorkEnergyPowerEfficiencyMomentumImpulse
3Think about… Why is energy important? Where does energy come from? Where does energy go?How do we capture energy?Why is this an important part of our everyday lives???How does energy impact kinematics (motion) and dynamics (forces)?
4First … What is momentum? What is the formula for momentum? The product of mass and velocity.What is the formula for momentum?p = mv (don’t use P!!! Power!)What are the units for momentum?kg m/s
5An example to think about… Give an example involving momentum.Think of two cars of equal mass. If one car is moving faster, it will take more force to stop the faster car in the same time interval.If you have a car and a truck, the truck has more mass so has more momentum – it will take longer for it to stop than the car.Is momentum a vector or scalar?Vector (same direction as the motion or velocity).
6ExampleA cement truck full of cement has a mass of 42000kg. It travels north at 18 m/s.A) Calculate the truck's momentum.B) How fast must a 750 kg Honda Civic travel in order to have the same momentum?
7MomentumMomentum can also be defined starting from Newton’s Second LawThe rate of change of momentum can also be used to determine the force
8ExampleA cyclist is travelling at 32km/h and the bike and rider have a mass of 85kg. What is their momentum?
10Relating this to ForceAccording to Newton's first law, if no net force acts on an object, its velocity is constant. Its mass will not change.Therefore, in this situation, momentum is constant. Momentum is conserved.Newton's second law describes how the velocity of a body changes if a net force acts on it.
11We have looked at motion and forces already…However… When an object is accelerated, typically the force will only be applied for a given timeThis holds true for things like:ExplosionsCollisionsRecoilSo instead of considering Newton’s Second Law (F = ma) as we have previously discussed it, we will rearrange the equation so we can look at momentum and impulse
12Impluse - DerivationUsing the definition of acceleration (change in velocity divided by change in time) we can rewrite Newton’s Second LawRearranging gives impulse
13Impulse Force applied over a given time It is a VECTOR and the direction is the same direction as the forceIts symbol is jFormula: j = F∆tUnits: Ns
14But what is impulse? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yUpiV2I_IRI Why are buses safer than other vehicles???Up to 13 minutes (rest is next unit…types of energy)
15ExampleA tennis ball is struck by a racquet with a force of 750N; if the time of contact was 0.023s, what impulse was delivered to the ball?
17ProblemA baseball of mass 0.145kg is pitched toward a batter with an initial velocity of 35m/s. If the batter hits the ball in the opposite direction at 45m/s, determine the force that is applied by the bat on the ball if the contact time was 0.013s.
18Did you get an answer of890 N [away from the batter]
19Impulse-Momentum Connection Collisions and explosions happen so quickly that it is often impossible to calculate anything more than an average force. This is because the force changes so quickly.By examining the momentum before and after the interaction between 2 objects, we can determine impulse.
20Impulse-Momentum Theorem Impulse is the difference of the final momentum and initial momentum of an object involved in an interaction.
21Impulse-Momentum Theorem Impulse and momentum can be related in order to solve dynamics problems in one step as opposed to two or more
22More Practice http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/momentum/u4l2e.cfm Think of a dump truck and a car. If they are stopped in the same time interval, it will take a ______ (more or less) force to stop the truck than the car. Why?Think of two cars of equal mass. If one car is moving faster,it will take _____ (more or less) force to stop the faster car in the same time interval.
23A cement truck full of cement has a mass of 42000 kg A cement truck full of cement has a mass of kg. It travels north at 18 m/s. Calculate the truck's momentum. How fast must a 750 kg Honda Civic travel in order to have the same momentum?
24A golf club strikes a golf ball A golf club strikes a golf ball. The club and ball remain in contact for 0.60 ms. The 45 g ball leaves the club with a speed of 70. m/s. Calculate the average force of the club on the ball.
25Example from before…A baseball of mass .145kg is pitched toward a batter with an initial velocity of 35m/s. If the batter hits the ball in the opposite direction at 45m/s, determine the force that is applied by the bat on the ball if the contact time was 0.013s.