Presentation on theme: " Planning, Laying Out, and Tooling Concrete Block."— Presentation transcript:
Planning, Laying Out, and Tooling Concrete Block
Next Generation Science/Common Core Standards Addressed! CCSS.ELA Literacy. RST.9‐10.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to special cases or exceptions defined in the text. CCSS.ELA Literacy. RST.9‐ 10.5Analyze the structure of the relationships among concepts in a text, including relationships among key terms (e.g., force, friction, reaction force, energy). CCSS.ELA Literacy. RST.11‐ 12.3 Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying out experiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks; analyze the specific results based on explanations in the text CCSS.ELA Literacy. RST.11‐12.4 Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain‐specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11–12 texts and topics. CCSS.Math.Content.HSGCO.D.12 Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straight edge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc.). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line
Bell Work/Student Learning Objectives Discuss how to plan and lay out a job. Explain how to mix mortar and lay blocks. Explain how to tool joints, patch holes, and clean smears.
Terminology Batter boards Block chisel Block hammer Block trowel Closure block Concrete masonry units Corner block Face shell mortar bed Frost line Full mortar bed Jointer Lightweight blocks Mason’s line Masonry cement Masonry sand Mortar Mortar hoe Raker joint Standard or heavyweight blocks Story or course pole Stretcher block Tooling joints
Concrete masonry Popular type of agricultural construction. Concrete blocks are strong, durable, fireproof, rodent and termite proof, and do not rot Concrete masonry units, also called concrete blocks, come in two types and several standard sizes
General Types Two general types: hollow solid Standard or heavyweight block: Made from Portland cement, water, sand, gravel, and crushed stone
General Types Lightweight blocks: Made from Portland cement, water, and lightweight aggregates, such as cinders, slag, or shale. Weighs half as much as a standard block Easier to handle but have greater insulating value
Block Sizes Even number widths 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 inches Even number heights 4 and 8 inches 8 ×8 ×16 block Widely used to build agricultural structures. Actual dimensions are: 7 5 /8 ×7 5 /8 ×15 5 /8 Mortar completes the dimensions (3/8 layer)
Block Sizes When the standard 3/8 mortar joint is added, the block with one mortar joint is 8 inches high and 16 inches long.
Block Types Building dimensions Total length and width in inches should be divisible by eight so that full blocks and half blocks will be used Blocks come in a variety of shapes Corner block and stretcher blocks are the most common
Block Types Stretcher block: has ribs on both ends Usually with three cores or holes in the block Used between the corners
Block Types Corner block: Square across one end and has ribs on the other end Used at the corner when laying blocks Use the dimensions to figure the Use the dimensions to figure the number of blocks needed.
Other types of blocks!
Bonding Materials Mortar: Bonding material made of sand and masonry cement Mix one part cement to 2½ to 3 parts masonry sand. Masonry cement: Type of cement used to make mortar while Portland cement is used to make concrete
Bonding Materials Masonry sand is fine sand while the sand used in concrete is coarse sand Use the following as a guide to calculate the amount of cement and sand to purchase: in a 1:3 mix, 1 bag of cement and 250 pounds of sand will lay 100 eight inch blocks.
Laying out the Structure Building must be laid out prior to digging the footing and pouring it Surveying instruments Easiest, quickest, most accurate way to lay out building’s corners Generally laid out parallel to property lines or other buildings
Laying out the Structure Surveying level and target rod: Helps to set square corners and the proper height of the foundation wall Dimensions should always be doubled checked Measuring for equal diagonals is a way to check for square corners.
If no Surveying Equipment Establish a base line and use the 3–4–5 right triangle method to establish square corners
Outer Supports Batter boards: Outside supports used to stretch strings stretch strings: set up when corner stakes are in place The batter board includes three stakes and two horizontal 1 x 4 or 1 x 6’s The strings mark the outside of the foundation wall and the top of the foundation
Outer Supports Plumb bobs can be helpful to insure that the strings intersect over the corner stake Use powdered lime or spray paint to mark the ground for digging the footing
Outer Supports Remove strings while the digging is done. The surveying level and the target rod are used to set the grade stakes or forms in the trench
Outer Supports The footing trench should be dug down to firm soil below the frost line Frost line: Deepest point in the soil where the ground freezes in a typical year The bottom of the trench should be flat and level Most New Mexico building codes require the footing to be a foot deep.
Outer Supports Footing rules are: Set at or below the frost line, pour a minimum of 8 inches for 8 inch blocks, 10 inches for 10 inch blocks, etc., and have the footing at least twice as wide as the foundation.
Outer Supports After footing is poured and forms are removed: Sweep off the footing and re-stretch the strings The plumb bob can be used at the string intersection to help mark the corners on the footing This provides you with a straight line for laying the block wall
Outer Supports Snap a chalk line on the concrete footing to mark the location of the outside of the first row of concrete blocks Beginning block layers sometimes lay out the first row of blocks without mortar to make sure the layout was planned properly
Mixing Mortar and Laying Blocks Good mortar: Absolutely necessary for good workmanship and a good finished wall Process of laying concrete blocks requires considerable know-how and skill Concrete masonry work may be contracted to professionals
Concrete Masonry You start by mixing mortar and carrying blocks Start with: Clean, dry blocks water masonry sand masonry cement concrete blocks quality tools
Mixing Mortar Strength of a mortar joint is affected by: Quantity of cementing material, Portions and moisture content of the mortar, and Quality of the workmanship.
Mixing Mortar Mix one part masonry cement to 2½ to 3 parts masonry sand with enough to make a workable mix that is plastic enough to support blocks on a 3 /8 inch mortar joint until it has set If masonry cement is not available: Use Combination of Portland cement and hydrated lime
Mixing Mortar Mix mortar in: A leak proof box with shallow sides, A wheelbarrow, or A mixing machine
Mixing Mortar To hand mix: Use a mortar hoe (a hoe with two large holes in the blade) to dry mix the cement and sand until a uniform color exists. Gradually add water and continue mixing with the mortar hoe until the mortar is plastic and workable
Mixing Mortar If mortar is: Too stiff: Will not bond well and results in a thick joint Too thin: Will be squeezed out by the weight of the block resulting in narrow mortar joints
Concrete Layout Locate the corners and lay out the first course, without mortar, to check the layout Full mortar bed: Using mortar on both horizontal and vertical cross webs of the block Face shell mortar bed: Using mortar on only the horizontal cross webs of the block
Concrete Layout Normally the first course uses a full mortar bed and the other courses use a face shell mortar bed Always lay the blocks with the thicker end of the face shell up This provides a larger area on which to place the mortar
Laying first course of Blocks Mason’s line: Nylon string that is stretched tight to mark the top and outside edge of a row of concrete blocks Once the first course corner blocks are laid in position stretch it so that the first course will be straight Buttering refers to putting mortar on the end of a block
Laying first course of Blocks Block layers often stand several blocks on end and butter the ends To get a better bond to the block: Flip mortar off trowel onto block with snap of the wrist To place the block in position: Pick it up with both hands and use a swinging motion to lower it into position
Laying first course of Blocks To make sure a laid block is level plumb, and aligned: Use a level Level the blocks by tapping the block with the handle of the trowel
Laying first course of Blocks Block trowel: Triangular shaped piece of metal with a wooden handle Block hammer: Can be used to tap blocks into place as well as cutting blocks
Laying first course of Blocks Block chisel: Three or four inch wide metal chisel that can be hit with the block hammer to mark and cut concrete blocks
After first course of blocks Use face shell mortar beds and lay up 4 or 5 courses of blocks at the corners Check for each block’s: Level, plumb, and alignment Checking horizontal spacing: Use a straightedge or four foot level
After first course of blocks Since each course is back spaced a half block, the corner of each back stepped row should touch the diagonally positioned straightedge. Story or course pole: Board with markings eight inches apart Use to ensure that the horizontal mortar jointing are running 3 /8 inches thick.
After first course of blocks Key to a straight true wall: Using the mason’s line between the corners as a guide Most difficult part of laying blocks: Usually laying the closure block
After first course of blocks Closure block: Last block laid to complete the row If vertical mortar joints have been 3/8 inches the opening for the last block should be 16 3/8 inches long (2 3/8 inch mortar joints and a 15 5/8 inch block)
After first course of blocks Closure block: Must be buttered on both ends or Previously laid block must be buttered If mortar falls off the end of the block as swung into place, block should be removed and re-buttered
Tooling joints and removing smears Completes job resulting in a professional appearance to the job
Tooling Joints Procedure that pushes the mortar into the groove between the blocks Creating an improved bond of the mortar to the block Results in a weather-tight joint with a neat appearance Jointer: Concave or V- shaped metal tool with a handle and turned up ends
Tooling Joints Brick layers often use a raker joint. Raker joint: Tool that moves the mortar from the joint to depth of approximately 3/8 inches
Removing mortar burrs After joints have been tooled, trim off with face of the wall with the trowel
Crooked Blocks Do not attempt to move or straighten the block once the mortar has stiffened or even partly stiffened
Mortar Dabs On block: Should be allowed to dry Use trowel to knock dab off Piece of a concrete block to rub out remaining particles
Smears When laying blocks, be careful not to smear mortar into the blocks Once the smears are in the block it is impossible to remove them A wire brush will help but is unable to remove mortar from pores in the block Muriatic acid rinse will help clean the wall and make paint smears less noticeable
Review / Summary Discuss how to plan and lay out a job. Explain how to mix mortar and lay blocks. Explain how to tool joints, patch holes, and clean smears.