2Define the following terms: 1. biscuit method—making quick breads by adding solid fat to dry ingredients before mixing in liquids.2. conventional method—bread-baking meth9od in which yeast is dissolved in warm water to activate growth3. cut in—to mix solid fat and flour with pastry blender or two knives and cutting motion.
34. drop biscuits—biscuits made with more liquid in proportion to flour, as compared to rolled biscuits.5. fermentation—when yeast and enzymes it contains break down carbohydrates to produce alcohols and carbon dioxide gas for leavening.
46. kneading—working dough to combine ingredients and develop gluten. 7. muffin method—technique for making quick breads by lightly mixing liquid ingredients into dry.8. quick breads—breads leavened by agents that allow for immediate baking.
59. rolled biscuits—biscuits mixed by biscuit method; dough is rolled out to even thickness and cut before baking.score—to make slashes across top of bread; decorative and prevents cracks.11. yeast breads—breads leavened with yeast.
6Answer the following questions: 1. How are quick breads leavened?Air, steam, baking soda, and baking powder are typically used.
72. What basic methods are used to make quick breads? Muffin method or biscuit method.
83. Explain the muffin method. Mix dry ingredients; make a well in the center, beat together all liquid ingredients until well blended; pour the liquid into the well and blend with as few strokes as possible. The challenge is to avoid overmixing.
94. How would you know when each of these quick breads is done? Muffin—should be lightly browned.Loaf breads—should be lightly browned, pull slightly away from the sides, have a crack in the center of the crust, and feel firm when tapped.Pancakes—ready to turn when the edges look dry and bubbles on top start to break; done when the underside is golden.
105. What are signs of a well-made muffin? A symmetrical shape; fine, light, and tender on the inside.
116. How is the biscuit method different from the muffin method? With the biscuit method, the fat is cut into the dry ingredients before the liquid is added. Also, some biscuits require rolling and kneading.
127. How do you knead rolled biscuits? You work the dough on a slightly floured surface, use only your fingertips to work the dough; to knead, you fold the dough in half toward you and then give a quarter turn and repeat the process.
138. How do you cut out rolled biscuits? With a biscuit cutter or beverage glass lightly dipped in flour, or with a knife.
149. How are drop biscuits different from rolled biscuits? Drop biscuits have more liquid and are not kneaded; their texture is more mealy than flaky.
1510. What are signs of a well-made biscuit? Rolled biscuits have doubled in size and have a golden brown top and straight, cream-colored sides. Drop biscuits have doubled in size and have golden-brown irregular contours.
1611. How does fermentation cause yeast dough to rise? Yeast and the enzymes it contains produce alcohols and carbon dioxide gas by breaking down carbohydrates. As the gas leavens the bread, it also “pushes around” protein and water molecules, enabling them to form more gluten.
1712. What is the difference between basic white bread and whole-grain bread? In whole-grain bread, whole-grain flour replaces part or all of the all-purpose flour used in basic white bread.
1813. How can basic white bread become batter bread and sweet white bread? It can become batter bread by adding more liquid. It can become sweet white bread by adding butter, eggs, extra sugar, and perhaps nuts and fruits.
1914. Why should ingredients for making yeast bread be room temperature? To promote yeast growth.
2015. Why is the quick-mix method of making yeast dough faster than the conventional method? Because it uses a kitchen appliance such as a standard electric mixer to do some of the dough mixing.
2116. How is kneading yeast dough different from kneading biscuit dough? With yeast breads, you use the heels of your hands, not your fingers, and you knead this kind of dough much longer.
2217. How do you prepare yeast dough for the first rise? For the first rising, place the ball-shaped dough in a large, lightly greased bowl that is large enough to allow the dough to double in size. Turn the dough over so the greased surface is on top, and press plastic wrap lightly onto it. This helps keep the dough from forming a crust or drying out, both of which limit yeast growth. Cover with a clean, dry sigh towel, and choose a warm place for the dough to rise until double in bulk, usually about 1-1 ½ hours.
2318. Why is yeast dough punched down after the first rise? Doing so lets excess gases escape, allowing the dough to be more easily shaped. It also eliminates large air bubbles.
2419. How do you shape yeast dough into a loaf? 1. Flour the work surface lightly. Roll dough into an 8 x 10 rectangle that is the same thickness throughout.2. Starting at one of the short ends, roll the dough up tightly. This helps press out air as you roll.3. Turn the roll so the seam is on top. With your fingers, pinch the seam edge to the roll so it stays closed.
254. Turn the roll seam-side down 4. Turn the roll seam-side down. Hold your hands with palms pressed together. With the bottom edge of your hands, press down on both ends of the roll, about ¼ inch inside the edge, to pinch and seam them.5. Tuck the flattened ends under the roll. Then turn the roll upside down and pinch the ends into it. Place the roll seam-side down in a greased loaf pan.
2620. How and why would you score a loaf before baking it? How: make slashes about ½ inch deep across the top of the bread.Why: to prevent the crust from cracking as the dough rises.
2721. If you were making bread from scratch, would you prefer to make quick bread or yeast bread? Why?
2822. What are signs of well-made yeast breads? The bread has risen well. The top is smooth, rounded, and nicely browned; inside the bread has a soft and springy texture that is consistently fine throughout.
2923. What is sourdough bread? It is bread made with sourdough starter. This well-fermented mixture of yeast, water, and flour gives a tangy flavor and chewy texture.(The starter can be made of milk, water, sugar, salt, flour, yeast, and water.
30Ingredients are mixed and stand for several days before the yeast is proofed and added. That mixture is also allowed to stand for several days before it is mixed in. When some starter is taken to make a loaf of bread, it s is replaced with flour and water to keep the starter going.)