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White cake Withdrawal from extensive intake of chocolate cake mix batter by female rats induces more weight loss than observed after withdrawal from white.

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Presentation on theme: "White cake Withdrawal from extensive intake of chocolate cake mix batter by female rats induces more weight loss than observed after withdrawal from white."— Presentation transcript:

1 white cake Withdrawal from extensive intake of chocolate cake mix batter by female rats induces more weight loss than observed after withdrawal from white cake mix batter SIENA COLLEGE Larry D. Reid, Karen J. Boswell, Aubrie M. Lacroix, Christopher A. Caffalette, & Meta L. Reid USA Larry D. Reid, Karen J. Boswell, Aubrie M. Lacroix, Christopher A. Caffalette, & Meta L. Reid Laboratory for Psychopharmacology, Siena College, Loudonville, NY and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA Introduction The endogenous opioids modulate the extent of ingestion (Reid, 1985), including the ingestion of alcoholic beverages (Reid, 1990). Large doses (e.g., 2 mg a female rat) of estradiol valerate (EV) disturb the arcuate n. of the hypothalamus (Brawer et al., ) and, consequently, selectively reduce the  -endorphin content of brain. In an attempt to learn the contribution of  -endorphin (in contrast to other endogenous opioids) to the modulation of intake of alcoholic beverages, rats were given large doses of EV and their intake of alcoholic beverages tabulated. Injections of EV initially led to reductions in intake of alcohol, but subsequently led to marked increases in intake (4 references). To those interested in studying individual differences in intake of alcohol (i.e., alcoholism), a finding that a procedure, with few gross effects but large salient effects, will lead to sustained increases in intake of alcohol maybe of interest. After clearly establishing that the increased intakes of alcohol were not specific to a particular alcoholic beverage, strain of rats, or minor differences in procedures, and emerged with smaller doses (references), the next question addressed was whether the injection of EV led to increases in intake of ingesta other than alcoholic beverages. The first experiment, along these lines, involved two concentrations of saccharin solution, one clearly taken in large amounts by female rats and the other taken in small amounts (a high concentration that tastes bittersweet to people). EV enhanced the intake of the one taken avidly and reduced the intake of the other one (reference). After clearly establishing that the increased intakes of alcohol were not specific to a particular alcoholic beverage, strain of rats, or minor differences in procedures, and emerged with smaller doses (references), the next question addressed was whether the injection of EV led to increases in intake of ingesta other than alcoholic beverages. The first experiment, along these lines, involved two concentrations of saccharin solution, one clearly taken in large amounts by female rats and the other taken in small amounts (a high concentration that tastes bittersweet to people). EV enhanced the intake of the one taken avidly and reduced the intake of the other one (reference). We then asked whether EV-injections would enhance intake of complex, palatable ingesta. We chose chocolate cake mix batter (CCMB) as a representative of such ingesta. EV enhances intake of CCMB (reference). EV also enhances intake of white cake mix batter (WCMB) (but we have only a little data to support that claim). To lessen the work of these studies, we evolved a procedure of presenting the CCMB during the middle four days of the week and suspending presentations during the weekend (i.e., 4 days of presentation, and 3 days of no presentation of CCMB). We then asked whether EV-injections would enhance intake of complex, palatable ingesta. We chose chocolate cake mix batter (CCMB) as a representative of such ingesta. EV enhances intake of CCMB (reference). EV also enhances intake of white cake mix batter (WCMB) (but we have only a little data to support that claim). To lessen the work of these studies, we evolved a procedure of presenting the CCMB during the middle four days of the week and suspending presentations during the weekend (i.e., 4 days of presentation, and 3 days of no presentation of CCMB). We observed that with presentation CCMB or WCMB, to both EV-treated and placebo-treated females, there were marked increases in bodyweights corresponding to the females’ large increases in intake. There were consistent losses of weight across the 24 hr after the end opportunity to take CCMB. Although we had only a little data to confirm the observation, it appeared that such weight loss did not occur when WCMB was the ingesta. We observed that with presentation CCMB or WCMB, to both EV-treated and placebo-treated females, there were marked increases in bodyweights corresponding to the females’ large increases in intake. There were consistent losses of weight across the 24 hr after the end opportunity to take CCMB. Although we had only a little data to confirm the observation, it appeared that such weight loss did not occur when WCMB was the ingesta. This experiment is a test of the idea that intake of an ingesta with considerable cocoa powder induces changes in bodyweight regulation that are not seen with similar ingesta without cocoa powder. This experiment is a test of the idea that intake of an ingesta with considerable cocoa powder induces changes in bodyweight regulation that are not seen with similar ingesta without cocoa powder. Method The subjects were 18 female, Sprague-Dawley rats purchased from Taconic Farms when they weighed about 200 g. Upon arrival at the laboratory, they were housed in individual cages. Food (standard laboratory chow) and water were always available though out the procedures. The room housing their cages was maintained at about 22 o C with 12 hr of incandescent light. The subjects were 18 female, Sprague-Dawley rats purchased from Taconic Farms when they weighed about 200 g. Upon arrival at the laboratory, they were housed in individual cages. Food (standard laboratory chow) and water were always available though out the procedures. The room housing their cages was maintained at about 22 o C with 12 hr of incandescent light. After a few days to habituate to their new housing and to habituate to handling, the subjects were weighed daily. Then, they began a regimen of days of presentation of cake mix batters (see Fig. 1 & 2). Half of the subjects received WCMB and half CCMB. After three cycles of presentation of batter and then no presentation of batter, all subjects were given CCMB across a 4-day period and then it was taken away. After a few days to habituate to their new housing and to habituate to handling, the subjects were weighed daily. Then, they began a regimen of days of presentation of cake mix batters (see Fig. 1 & 2). Half of the subjects received WCMB and half CCMB. After three cycles of presentation of batter and then no presentation of batter, all subjects were given CCMB across a 4-day period and then it was taken away. The data, from an other experiment, from similar subjects given saccharin solutions to drink, in addition to the regular food and water, are presented to provide a base to judge the changes in weights that occur with presentation of CCMB. The data, from an other experiment, from similar subjects given saccharin solutions to drink, in addition to the regular food and water, are presented to provide a base to judge the changes in weights that occur with presentation of CCMB. Results The subjects took about the same amount of WCMB and CCMB (see Fig. 1). Despite taking similar amounts of batter, there were differences in bodyweights across the days when the different batters were presented and not presented (Fig. 2). With each termination of CCMB, there was weight loss whereas with termination of WCMB there was minimal weight loss, if any. The most dramatic differences between the two groups involve the termination of intake following the 3 rd, 8-day presentation of either WCMB or CCMB. Comparing the mean weights of the two groups across the last 3 days of batter presentation to the mean weights of the two groups across the first 3 days after the end of batter presentation, we find that the subjects of CCMB lost 2.5% of their weight whereas the subjects of WCMB gained 0.1% (p =.03). Discussion It seems to be common knowledge that chocolate containing foods are “addictive.” The more specific issue is whether an avidity for chocolate falls into a category of (very similar to) morphine dependence or a category of propensity to play computer games. The issues can be framed differently. Can extensive intake of cocoa set conditions that sustain that intake more than could be expected by the rewards of taste. Or, is extensive, regular intake of cocoa a habit; and only a “bad” habit if it leads to obesity or other nutritional problems (and, then be labeled an addiction)? These semantic concerns could be trivial, unless these distinctions reflect different realities. These different concepts could differentially influence our thinking about human nutrition and related issues concerning the current epidemic of obesity. Issues surrounding cocoa might be salient, since many of our luxury ingesta contain cocoa and other products containing xanthenes. It seems to be common knowledge that chocolate containing foods are “addictive.” The more specific issue is whether an avidity for chocolate falls into a category of (very similar to) morphine dependence or a category of propensity to play computer games. The issues can be framed differently. Can extensive intake of cocoa set conditions that sustain that intake more than could be expected by the rewards of taste. Or, is extensive, regular intake of cocoa a habit; and only a “bad” habit if it leads to obesity or other nutritional problems (and, then be labeled an addiction)? These semantic concerns could be trivial, unless these distinctions reflect different realities. These different concepts could differentially influence our thinking about human nutrition and related issues concerning the current epidemic of obesity. Issues surrounding cocoa might be salient, since many of our luxury ingesta contain cocoa and other products containing xanthenes. Although generalizations from these data should be limited by the novelty of the findings, the shortage of germane data, and the particulars of the procedures, it seems that extensive intake of cocoa powder produces disturbances that resemble extensive intake of morphine (i.e., weight loss with termination of intake). At the very least, the data support the conclusion that cocoa containing products have the potential to be something more than palatable ingesta. Such a conclusion might lead to a consideration of a broader issue: Is there a meaningful distinction between delicious and addictive? Although generalizations from these data should be limited by the novelty of the findings, the shortage of germane data, and the particulars of the procedures, it seems that extensive intake of cocoa powder produces disturbances that resemble extensive intake of morphine (i.e., weight loss with termination of intake). At the very least, the data support the conclusion that cocoa containing products have the potential to be something more than palatable ingesta. Such a conclusion might lead to a consideration of a broader issue: Is there a meaningful distinction between delicious and addictive? References Reid LD Brawer Reid LD, Mar… et al. Reid ML et al. Marn.. Ford et al. Poster presented at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, July, 2004, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA Fig. 2. The mean of daily bodyweights for the two groups are presented as well as a group of similar rats maintained in the same environment, but having no cake batter. The data points with brown fill designate weights after a day when CCMB was presented, those with white fill designate weights on days when WCMB was presented. The straight lines are the linear representations of the raw data for each group. Notice that rats of this sex and age generally, steadily increase in weight. The trend lines for the two groups getting cake batter are higher indicating that they are gaining weight more than the no cake group. These basics are what would be expected and set the stage for judging differences between the subjects getting CCMB and WCMB. The females getting WCMB add weight when the begin taking WCMB and sustain that weight gain while the WCMB is being presented. With the end of WCMB, the females sustain the weight they had during the last days of WCMB. Compare days 7 to 8, 14 to 15, and 25 to 26 (no reliable change in weights from last day of WCMB to first day without, p-values from dependent t-tests are =.78,.92, &.08, respectively). The females of CCMB uniformly lose weight (p- values, dependent t-tests, =.02, <.0001 & <.0001, respectively). After the last 4 days of CCBM for half the subjects and after the first 4 days of CCBM for the females previously receiving WCMB, both groups reliably lost weight (compare days 42 to 43; dependent t-tests, for the CCMB group, yields p =.009, for the other group, p =.0002). Fig. 1. Mean g/kg intake of the two kinds of batter on the days when it was presented. On days 36-39, both groups got CCMB. There are no statistically significant differences in intakes between the two groups.


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