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Do Due #61 Why do geographers use hexagons to depict market areas? Nothing Unit 6 Exams should be completed after school today in this room Do NowDue Today

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Cities Unit 7: Cities and Urban Land Use

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World Cities

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Top Ten Cities,1950 (estimated from various sources) City Pop (in millions) Lat Long New York, USA12.340 N 74 W London, UK8.752 N 0 Tokyo, Japan6.935 N135 E Paris, France5.449 N 2 E Moscow, USSR5.456 N 37 E Shanghai, China5.331 N121 E Essen (Ruhr), Germany5.351 N 7 E Buenos Aires, Argentina5.034 S 58 W Chicago, USA4.941 N 87 W Calcutta (Kolkata), India4.422 N 88 E Plot these cities to see where the world’s ten largest cities were located in 1950. Symbolize each with a circle . World Urban System

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Top Ten Cities, 2015 (estimated from various sources) City Pop (in millions) Lat Long Tokyo, Japan28.935 N135 E Mumbai (Bombay), India26.219 N 73 E Lagos, Nigeria24.6 6 N 3 E São Paulo, Brazil20.323 S 46 W Dhaka, Bangladesh19.523 N 90 E Karachi, Pakistan19.425 N 69 E Mexico City, Mexico19.219 N 99 W Shanghai, China18.031 N121 E New York, USA17.640 N 74 W Kolkata (Calcutta), India17.322 N 88 E Plot these cities on the world map to see where the ten world’s most populated cities will be in 2015. Symbolize each with a square .

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Place an X on each city as it is named on the following 12 lists. Each list identifies the top 5 cities as ranked according to its provision of certain services (Taylor 2005). As cities are named more than once, just keep adding more X ’s. Banking $ London New York Tokyo Hong Kong Singapore

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Producer Services $ London New York Hong Kong Paris Tokyo

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Management New York London Paris Madrid Stockholm

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Law London New York Frankfurt Hong Kong Washington DC

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Insurance London New York Hong Kong Los Angeles Paris

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Advertising New York London Hong Kong Toronto Sydney

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Media ♫ London New York Paris Los Angeles Milan

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Architecture/Engineering London New York Beijing Singapore Shanghai

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United Nations Agencies Geneva Brussels Addis Ababa Cairo Bangkok

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National Diplomatic Missions Washington DC New York London Tokyo Paris

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Humanitarian & Environmental NGOs Nairobi Brussels Bangkok London New Delhi

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Scientific Research London Los Angeles San Francisco Boston Basel Geneva New York

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“World cities are not simply the world’s largest … cities. Rather, they are the control centers for the global economy, places where critical decision making and interaction take place with regard to global economic, cultural, and political issues” (Knox and Marston 2001, p. 426). “WORLD CITIES”

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Urban Economic Geography Central Place Theory Urban Land Use/Development/Downtowns Redevelopment World Cities Hypothesis & Network

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CENTRAL PLACE THEORY aka CPT ok

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What is it? A basic theory describing size distribution of urban locations based upon these locations providing goods and services

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Who is Christaller?

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Walter Christaller, a German geographer, originally proposed the Central Place Theory (CPT) in 1933 (trans. 1966). Christaller was studying the urban settlements in Southern Germany and advanced this theory as a means of understanding how urban settlements evolve and are spaced out in relation to each other.

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Terms Hinterland – Area where a city is the dominant producer of a particular good or service Field of Influence – Any location where a city has influence Centrality – Amount of draw to a particular place

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Terms Consumer Range – Distance a consumer will travel for a particular good or service Threshold – Minimum population needed to keep a business in operation Hierarchy of market centers - Settlements range in size from large cities - with many services to smaller villages and towns with some services, to small hamlets - which offer few services.

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Order of Goods High Order 1. High Price 2. Low Frequency of Purchase 3. High Threshold 4. Large Consumer Range Low Order 1. Low Price 2. High Frequency of Purchase 3. Low Threshold 4. Small Consumer Range

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Order of Places ® The higher order of goods offered the higher order of the place ® Higher order places are more widely spread out ® Hierarchy development

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Assumptions 1. There is an unbounded uniform plain on which there is equal ease of transport in all directions. Transport costs are proportional to distance and there is only one type of transport.

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Assumptions 2. Population is evenly distributed over the plain.

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Assumptions 3. Central places (settlements) are located on the plain to provide goods, services, and administrative functions to their hinterlands. Examples of these are hardware shops (goods), dry cleaners (services), and town planning departments (administrative).

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Assumptions 4. Consumers minimize the distance to be travelled.

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Assumptions 5. The suppliers of these functions act as economic [agents]; that is, they attempt to maximize their profits by locating on the plain to obtain the largest possible market. Since people visit the nearest center, suppliers will locate as far away from one another as possible so as to maximize their market areas.

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Assumptions 6. It is assumed that these higher order centres supply certain functions (higher order functions) which are not offered by lower order centres. They also provide all the functions (lower order functions) that are provided in lower order centres.[i.e., you can still buy bread and milk in NYC, but international airports do not exist in smaller towns and cities, like Jersey City.]

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Assumptions 7. All consumers have the same income and the same demand for goods and services.

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Relax Assumptions: 1. Population income variation--wealthy vs. non-wealthy areas, wealthy areas do not usually need as large of a threshold 2. Variation in transport surfaces 3. Consumer Behaviour/Individual Preferences 4. Profits

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Shape of Hinterlands The model in CPT is explained using geometric shapes, such as hexagons and triangles

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38 R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M R T M ? Unmet demand for same good or service

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Is Central Place Theory applicable in the real world or is it just a theory? Any contemporary real world examples of the patterns seen in CPT? There are, however, some near perfect examples of Christaller’s theory to be found in the Canadian prairies and the Netherlands. Also Iowa and Wisconsin.

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A GENERAL GRAPH CONCERNING FUNCTIONS !

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Why doesn’t this always work? -Large areas of flat land rarely exist -Transport has changed since his day -People/wealth are not evenly distributed -Folks don’t always choose the central place! -Purchasing power/needs not all the same -Governments have control over location of industry/towns -Perfect competition = unreal -Places don’t stay the same forever -Does not fit industrial areas

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Market, - city, town, village, hamlet Market area / hinterland

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Consumers near center obtain services from local establishments. The closer to the periphery the greater the % of customers who will chose to obtain services from other nodes (cities). People are equally likely to use the service, or go elsewhere.

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Fast Food McDonald’s According to your text book McDonald’s has a range of 3 miles. The typical threshold is 10,000 people.

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Movie Theaters

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Movie Theaters: Range?

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Movie Theaters: Threshold - about 500 a night or 150,000

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Ikea

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Ikea - Range?

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Ikea - Threshold?

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Local CPT Application How does our area fit into the CPT? To Google Maps Bonus PPT on CPT if needed Bonus PPT on CPT if needed

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Do Due #62 Do Now What is a primate city? How does it differ from the Rank-Size Rule?... You damn dirty ape Due Today Nothing

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Rank-Size Rule

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Definition: Relatively developed societies produce a pattern in the size of their cities according to a mathematical formula.

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“ Ideal ” line

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How Well does the USA fit? 1.New York City, NY8.4 m 2.Los Angeles, CA3.8 m 3.Chicago, IL2.7 m 4.Houston, TX2.1 m 5.Philadelphia, PA1.5 m 6.Phoenix, AZ1.4 m 7.San Antonio, TX1.2 m 8.San Diego, CA1.3 m 9.Dallas, TX1.1 m 10.San Jose, CA945,000

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U.S. Line - 2007

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How does the U.S. Compare?

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PRIMATE CITIES In less developed countries/regions the largest city is overly large. The pattern of settlements is such that the largest settlement has more than twice as many people as the second largest settlement.

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CountryPrimate CityPopulationNext largest city Population MexicoMéxico City8.6 mGuadalajara1.6 m FranceParis9.6 mMarseille1.3 m United KingdomLondon7 mBirmingham1 m ThailandBangkok7.5 mNanthabury481,000 Denmark Copenhagen 1 mÅrhus200,000 RomaniaBucharest1.9 mIasi315,000

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Why do we care? -Interesting math! -Countries that have good rank-size distribution improve the quality of life of their citizens. A regular hierarchy (USA) indicates that a society is wealthy enough to provide services for its people. -Absence of rank-size means people may struggle to access large urban settlements, thus high level services like hospitals.

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Gravity Model

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What is the gravity model? A model that holds that the potential use of a service at a particular location is directly related to the number of people in a location and inversely related to the distance people must travel to reach the service. It can be put into a formula: Population 1 X Population 2 distance 2

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What does the gravity model do? It predicts spatial interaction. Spatial interaction: Daily commuting, e-mail, travel, international trade. Remember Ullman’s theory

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Ullman’s Theory Chicago Travel Patterns: shows 96% of all trips. What factors influence and create these patterns of interaction?

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Edward Ullman’s Theory Spatial Interaction is controlled by three flow-determining factors. Complementarity Transferability Intervening Opportunity A – Canadian rural cash economy B – Canadian older Mennonite sect

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What does the Gravity Model Illustrate? It illustrates that spatial interaction in not based solely upon distance because it also incorporates population as a factor as well.

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What kind of model is the Gravity Model?

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What kind of model? Mathematical. Interaction between two places is directly proportional to the sizes of their populations and inversely proportional to the distance separating them.

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Illustrate the gravity model… I Home J

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Which has a greater bond? NYC and Los Angeles or El Paso and Tucson. Use the gravity model.

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Example: El Paso, Texas and Tucson, Arizona. El Paso population 703,127. Tucson population 790,755. Population 1 X Population 2 distance 2

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Example: El Paso, Texas and Tucson, Arizona. El Paso population 703,127. Tucson population 790,755. The distance between the two is 263 miles Population 1 X Population 2 distance 2

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Example: El Paso, Texas and Tucson, Arizona. El Paso population 703,127. Tucson population 790,755. Equals 556,001,190,885. The distance between the two is 263 miles. 263 miles squared = 69,169 Population 1 X Population 2 distance 2

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Example: Population - Equals 556,001,190,885. The distance between the two is 263 miles. 263 miles squared = 69,169 Population 1 X Population 2 distance 2 The math works out to 8,038,300

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Example: NYC metropolitan population 20,124,377. LA metro population 15,781,273. Distance 2462 miles. Population 1 X Population 2 distance 2 Do the math…

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Example: NYC metropolitan population 20,124,377. LA metro population 15,781,273. Distance 2462 miles. 317,588,287,391,921 6,061,444 Do the math…

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Example: NYC metropolitan population 20,124,377. LA metro population 15,781,273. Distance 2462 miles. 317,588,287,391,921 6,061,444 The result is 52,394,823 Which has the great pull?

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Questions…. 1. If you were fitting a gravity model for Federal Express package flows between cities, which of the following would be best to substitute for total city population in the gravity model formula? A.number of elderly and children in the city B. square miles covered by the city C.annual steel production of the entire city D.total employment in offices in the entire city

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Questions…. 1.If you were fitting a gravity model for Federal Express package flows between cities, which of the following would be best to substitute for total city population in the gravity model formula? A.number of elderly and children in the city B. square miles covered by the city C.annual steel production of the entire city D.total employment in offices in the entire city

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Questions… 2.Using the graphic and the concepts of the gravity model to answer the question. Bob is considering selling his house and moving, which of the following cities is he most likely going to move to? City A, B or C?

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Questions… 2.Using the graphic and the concepts of the gravity model to answer the question. Bob is considering selling his house and moving, which of the following cities is he most likely going to move to? City C

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Questions… 3. Applying the gravity model to services you would see: A) Services located inverse to population and directly to distance B) Services located directly to population and inversely to distance C) Services located directly to population and directly to distance

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Questions… 3. Applying the gravity model to services you would see: A) Services located inverse to population and directly to distance B) Services located directly to population and inversely to distance C) Services located directly to population and directly to distance

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Take Me Out To The Ball Game

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Geography Project on Christaller’s Central Place Theory

Geography Project on Christaller’s Central Place Theory

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