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Taking the focus off the leader (Followership, Distributed and Shared Leadership) Agenda Setting the scene Sharing leadership Servant leadership Follower-centred.

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Presentation on theme: "Taking the focus off the leader (Followership, Distributed and Shared Leadership) Agenda Setting the scene Sharing leadership Servant leadership Follower-centred."— Presentation transcript:

1 Taking the focus off the leader (Followership, Distributed and Shared Leadership) Agenda Setting the scene Sharing leadership Servant leadership Follower-centred perspective Interactive leadership Democratic approaches

2 Rationale Leading on from the last lecture... Shared responsibility for leadership functions & empowerment – more effective than heroic leadership (Bradford & Cohen, 1984) Shared responsibility unlikely to occur as long as people expect individual leader to take full responsibility for fate of organization "Business Publications dedicated to the analysis and attributes of great leaders tend to ignore half of the equation. The nature of leadership can be best understood by turning over the coin and studying followership" Goffee & Jones (2006) Bradford, DL and Cohen, AR (1984) Managing for excellence: The guide to developing high performance in contemporary organizations. John Wiley: New York Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2006) The Art of Followership. European Business Forum, Issue 25, p. 22

3 The New Reality for Leadership OLD Paradigm Stability Control Competition Uniformity Self-centered Hero NEW Paradigm Change / crisis management Empowerment Collaboration Diversity Higher purpose Humble Source: Daft, R. (2004) The Leadership Experience. 3 rd ed. Cengage Learning: USA - Cpt 1

4 Follower-Centred approaches Grint (2005) believes we have become ‘overly preoccupied with individual leaders when, in fact, we should have been focussing more on leadership”. Rost sees a co-production of leadership by leaders and followers... “an influence relationship among leaders and followers who intend real changes that reflect their mutual purposes” (Rost, 1993: 102) Source: Johnson, B. and Parry, K. (2011) A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership. (2 nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

5 .... Sharing Leadership... “...rejects the distinction between leaders and followers. Leadership is seen not as a role, but as a function or an activity that can be shared among members of a group or organisation. Fundamentally, at the core of this approach is a belief that followers can and should be given their chance to lead, as it not only the right thing to do but also the smartest thing to do”. Source: Jackson and Parry 2008: 55 Co-leadershipShared Leadership Distributed or Dispersed Leadership Source: Johnson, B. and Parry, K. (2008) A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

6 Continuum of Leader-Follower Relationships Stage 1 Control Stage 2 Participation Stage 3 Empowerment Stage 4 Service Authoritarian manager Obedient subordinates Participat- ive manager Team players Self- responsible contributors Stewardship -empow. leader Whole employees Servant leader Active Passive Control Centered in the Leader/Organization Control Centered in the Follower Follower Leader Source: Daft (2004) cpt 6 Source: Daft, R. (2004) The Leadership Experience. 3 rd ed. Cengage Learning: USA

7 Some key ideas / research 1958 Hollander - two-way influence and social exchange relationship between leader and follower 1970/1977 Robert Greenleaf - ‘servant leadership’ 2005 Messick – leadership as a mutually beneficial relationship based on psychological exchange 2006 Collinson’s work on contested follower identities. “Followers are more smarter and more cunning than they tend to be given credit for, whether it is in the way they appear to support, conform, or resist” Source: Johnson, B. and Parry, K. (2011) A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership. (2 nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

8 Servant Leadership work by Greenleaf 1977 “Helping others to accomplish shared objectives by facilitating individual development, empowerment, and collective work that is consistent with the health and long-term welfare of followers.” Greenleaf, R. (1977) Servant Leadership: A Journey into the Nature of Legitimate Power and Greatness. New York: Paulist Press

9 Key Characteristics of Servant Leadership (van Dierendonck 2011) Servant Leaders: 1.empower and develop people 2.show humility 3.are authentic 4.accept people for who they are 5.provide direction 6.are stewards who work for the good of the whole. van Dierendonck, D. (2011) Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis. Journal of Management Vol37 pp

10 Servant leadership - links to other leadership theories and concepts There are seven leadership theories that reveal the most overlap with servant leadership: transformational leadership Level 5 leadership authentic leadership ethical leadership Plus: empowering leadership, spiritual leadership, self- sacrificing leadership See: van Dierendonck 2011 for a great paper!!... van Dierendonck, D. (2011) Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis. Journal of Management Vol37 pp

11 Definition of followership (Kelley, 1988: 146–47) "People who are effective in the follower role have the vision to see both the forest and the trees, the social capacity to work well with others, the strength of character to flourish without heroic status, the moral and psychological balance to pursue personal and corporate goals at no cost to others, and, above all, the desire to participate in a team effort for the accomplishment of some greater common purpose." Kelley R (1988) In praise of followers. Harvard Business Review 66(6): 142–148.

12 Categories of followership (Jackson and Parry 2011, based on work of Meindl) 5 traditional categories 1.Followers as recipients of leadership influence 2.Followers as moderators of leader impact 3.Followers as substitutes for leadership 4.Followers as constructors of leadership 5.Followers as leaders: Shared Leadership... Johnson, B. and Parry, K. (2011) A very short, fairly interesting and reasonably cheap book about studying leadership. (2 nd ed). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

13 Follower Styles of Kelley (1994) Independent, critical thinking Dependent, uncritical thinking Passive Active Passive AlienatedExemplary Conformist Pragmatic Survivor Kelley, R. (1992). The Power of Followership, Bantam Dell

14 The Art of Followership (the paper for the seminar) For Goffee & Jones 'The Art of Followership' means followers look for: Authenticity Significance Excitement Community … in their roles, organisations and leaders Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2006) The Art of Followership. European Business Forum, Issue 25, p. 22

15 An example of an approach in action: Interactive Leadership A leadership style in which people develop personal relationships with followers, share power and information, empower employees, and strive to enhance others’ feelings of self-worth Daft cpt 11 Source: Daft, R. (2004) The Leadership Experience. 3 rd ed. Cengage Learning: USA - Cpt 11

16 Interactive leadership Encourage participation –Inclusion & developing group identity through participative mechanisms –Need to give up control and takes time Share power & information –Creates loyalty & signals trust –Rejection and challenge of leader’s authority Enhance self-worth of others –Give credit, praise and signals of recognition – avoid exerting superiority Energize others –Spread enthusiasm –Negatively seen as ‘cheerleading’ Rosenor, J.B. (1990) The way women lead. Harvard Business Review. Nov-Dec,

17 Interactive Leadership – Women’s Way of Leading? “Research indicates that women’s style of leadership is typically different from most men’s and is particularly suited to today’s organizations….scoring higher on abilities such as motivating others, fostering communication, and listening” (Daft 2008) Men and women can be interactive leaders ! Minimising personal ambition and developing others Consensual & collaborative process Influence from relationships not positional power/formal authority Values include personal humility, inclusion, relationship building and caring Source: Daft, R. (2008) The Leadership Experience. 5th ed. Cengage Learning: USA

18 Case Example: Terri Kelly (CEO of W.L.Gore) - Interactive and Distributed Leadership (Seminar activity based on this) FORTUNE List for 13th Consecutive Year 2010 list of "100 Best Companies to Work For." No formal in-house titles, no bosses and a free flow of ideas "Your team is your boss, because you don't want to let them down. Everyone's your boss, and no one's your boss." "It takes a lot of energy…but we believe if you really want to harness the energy in the organization, you've got to allow it to be free." "All of our leaders are ranked by their colleagues. It's not based on seniority. It's not based on role or title. It's based on who's making the biggest impact to this organization."

19 On the more radical end of the spectrum: Economic Democracy Economic democracy is where workers have voting rights and high participation in decision making. Employee-owned businesses where employees/followers own shares in the companies and therefore have some influence as shareholders OR other form of input into the decision-making process (but not always much in practice!) e.g. John Lewis Partnership, ARUP Worker co-operatives which can be representative democracies OR direct democracies e.g. Mondragon, SUMA Wholefoods

20 20 Autocratic vs. Democratic Leadership - early research Democratic approach advocated for fostering effectiveness & satisfaction Authoritarian approach may result in heightened productivity in short term Likert (1961) 1.Authoritative 2.Benevolent autocratic 3.Consultative 4.Democratic Likert demonstrated that moving organization away from systems 1 & 2, and towards 3 & 4 would result in increases in productivity & employee satisfaction Likert, R (1961) New patterns of management. New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill

21 Modelling the Internal Dynamics of workplace democratization (Bernstein 2012) Bernstein’s research into 15 cases across the world suggest these are necessary aspects in order to achieve effective economic democracy in workplaces:- 1.Participation in decision-making 2.Economic return 3.Sharing management information 4.Guaranteed individual rights 5.Independent judiciary 6.A participatory / democratic consciousness Bernstein (2012) Workforce Democratization: Its Internal Dynamics. Educational Services Publishing: Chelsea Mass. USA

22 Followers as owners The core HRM practices of the ‘ownership- High-Performing Work Systems (HPWS)' are: employee ownership participation in decision-making profit sharing information sharing training for business literacy mediation Kaarsemaker, ECA & Poutsma, E (2006) The Fit of Employee Ownership with Other Human Resource Management Practices: Theoretical and Empirical Suggestions Regarding the Existence of an Ownership High-Performance Work System. Economic and Industrial Democracy November 2006 vol 27(4) pp

23 Continuum of Leader-Follower Relationships Stage 1 Control Stage 2 Participation Stage 3 Empowerment Stage 4 Service Authoritarian manager Obedient subordinates Participat- ive manager Team players Self- responsible contributors Stewardship -empow. leader Whole employees Servant leader Active Passive Control Centered in the Leader/Organization Control Centered in the Follower Follower Leader Source: Daft (2004) cpt 6 Source: Daft, R. (2004) The Leadership Experience. 3 rd ed. Cengage Learning: USA

24 Key reading and resources READING FOR SEMINAR Goffee, R. and Jones, G. (2006) The Art of Followership. European Business Forum, Issue 25, p. 22 KEY TEXTS Northouse (2012) Chapter 10 (Servant Leadership) Jackson and Parry (2011) Chapter 3 (Follower-centred) OTHERS Daft, RL (2011) Leadership. 5 th edition. Australia : South-Western Cengage Learning - CHAPTER 7 Art of Followership. By: Bennis, Warren. Leadership Excellence, Jan2010, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p3-4 Distributed Leadership. Ancona, Deborah; Backman, Elaine. Leadership Excellence, Jan2010, Vol. 27 Issue 1, p11-12, 2p Eagly, A.H. & Carli, L.L. (2003) The female leadership advantage: An evaluation of the evidence. The Leadership Quarterly,14, Great Leaders Teach Exemplary Followership and Serve As Servant Leaders. Banutu-Gomez, Michael Ba. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge, Mar2004, Vol. 4 Issue 1/2, p van Dierendonck, D. (2011) Servant Leadership: A Review and Synthesis. Journal of Management Vol37 pp Crossman, B. and Crossman, J. (2011) Conceptualising followership – a review of the literature. Leadership Vol 7 pp


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