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1 242-515 AGD: 1. History 1 Objective o to give an overview of video game history Animation and Game Development 242-515, Semester 1, 2014-2015 1. Games.

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Presentation on theme: "1 242-515 AGD: 1. History 1 Objective o to give an overview of video game history Animation and Game Development 242-515, Semester 1, 2014-2015 1. Games."— Presentation transcript:

1 AGD: 1. History 1 Objective o to give an overview of video game history Animation and Game Development , Semester 1, Games History

2 AGD: 1. History 2 1. Historical Years in Gaming: 1958 – Trends 3. Influential Early Games 4. Some Game Studios Overview

3 AGD: 1. History 3 Physicist William Higinbotham invented the first "video game" at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York. His game, a table tennis-like game, was played on an oscilloscope.1958

4 AGD: 1. History 4 Steve Russell, a student at MIT, created Spacewar, the first interactive computer game. It ran on a Digital PDP-1 mainframe computer, and the graphics used ASCII text.1961

5 AGD: 1. History 5

6 , Ralph Baer created a light gun controller for shooting games and the Brown Box, the first home video game console. Sold to Magnavox in Ralph Baer ( ) Brown Box and gun

7 AGD: 1. History 7 Magnavox Odyssey

8 AGD: 1. History 8 Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney (future founders of Atari) created an arcade version of Spacewar, called Computer Space. o the first video arcade game o difficult to play

9 AGD: 1. History 9 Created by Ralph Baer at Magnavox Odyssey A ping pong game with a moving ball controlled by user paddles; used a TV as the display Pong 1972

10 AGD: 1. History 10 Atari's version of Pong was released; It became a hot Christmas present Also became a popular arcade game Atari was sued by Baer and Magnavox, and it had to pay a one-time license fee of $700, Atari Pong console

11 AGD: 1. History 11 Manufacturers of older, obsolete consoles and Pong clones sold their systems at a loss to clear stock, creating a glut in the market. Only Atari and Magnavox remained in the home console market by the end of Video game crash of 1977

12 AGD: 1. History 12 Almost the first cartridge- based home system Open architecture allowed easy development First to introduce licensing of a system to game devs Atari 2600 (1977) 12

13 AGD: 1. History 13 The trackball was the controller forAtari's Football. Space Invaders was the first arcade game that tracked and displayed high scores.1978

14 AGD: 1. History 14 Asteroids was the first game to allow a high scorer to enter their name as three characters to be stored in the machine. Arcades

15 AGD: 1. History 15 Lunar Lander, Atari (1979) Battlezone was the first 3D game, set in a virtual battlefield o it was later enhanced by the U.S. government for military training

16 AGD: 1. History 16 Pac-Man released by Namco in o generated $100 million in sales during its lifetime

17 AGD: 1. History 17 Popular as a gaming platform: o Commodore VIC-20(1981), Commodore 64 (1982), Apple II, IBM PC, and IBM clones Start of game developer studios e.g. EA, Lucas Arts R ise of the home computer (1980's)

18 AGD: 1. History 18 Donkey Kong (1981) Frogger, Centipede (1981) Pole Position, Joust (1982) Mario Bros, Spy Hunter (1983) Popular Arcade Games

19 AGD: 1. History 19 Factors for the collapse include: o Lack of innovation o Over supply o Poor strategic choices by Atari (e.g. its E.T game) o Rise of the home computer o Press/public perception of games as a fad (a short-lived fashion) Video Games Crash of 1983

20 AGD: 1. History 20 Nintendo Entertainment System (NES) in USA (1985) Sega Master System (1986) Console Rebirth

21 AGD: 1. History 21 Developed by a Russian programmer, Alex Pajitnov, for the PC. Tetris 1985

22 AGD: 1. History 22 Nintendo released the Game Boy. NEC released the TurboGrafx-16 o first 16-bit console in the U.S o first system to run games stored on CDs1989

23 AGD: 1. History 23 Myst (1993) o no obvious enemies, no physical violence, no threat of "dying" Doom (1993) o very important first-person shooter Rise of the PC (1990's)

24 AGD: 1. History 24 Arcades focued on bringing in more "ride-and- video" games like skiing, snowboarding, and Jet Skiing, as they were more popular than shooting and fighting games. Used specialised hardware (not on PCs) Arcade Hardware (1990's)

25 AGD: 1. History 25 Sega Genesis console (16-bit) Nintendo Super NES (1991) o introduced the world to Sonic the Hedgehog Sega and Nintendo

26 AGD: 1. History 26 US Senate investigation into violence in video games. The Entertainment Software Rating Board was created. Rating on a game's box indicate the suggested age of players and the violent content

27 AGD: 1. History 27 Sony released the PlayStation 1 in 1994 o PlayStation 2 released in 2000, maintaining backwards compatibility o also the PS3, PSP, Vita It is the most popular game console with over 20 million sold. Playstation (1994)

28 AGD: 1. History 28 The Tamagotchi virtual pet became a sensation in Japan. It was released in the U.S. in May, selling all of its 30,000-unit supply in 3 days.1996

29 AGD: 1. History 29 Created by Japanese video game enthusiast Satoshi Tajiri Pokémon Red and Green released for Nintendo Game Boy in 1996 Movies, TV series, and multiple sequels followedPokémon 29

30 AGD: 1. History 30 Introduction of 3D engines Millions of polygons Shaders and physics Late 1990’s

31 AGD: 1. History 31 Nintendo's GameCube delivered an easier development environment for game creators. Nintendo released the GameBoy Advance, a portable gaming system. GameCube (2001)

32 AGD: 1. History 32 The Nintendo DS, a portable system with two screens, one of which could be used as a touch screen.2004

33 AGD: 1. History 33 Sony released the PSP, a portable system with a large, high-resolution display. Microsoft unveiled the XBox 360, a console system in November.2005

34 AGD: 1. History 34 Nintendo released the Wii, a gaming system that let gamers play by moving the controller o e.g. swinging it like a tennis racket, holding and tilting it like a steering wheel2006

35 AGD: 1. History 35 Grand Theft Auto 4 broke sales records in its first week after gamers bought more than 6 million copies.2008

36 AGD: 1. History 36 More than 10 million worldwide subscribers make World of Warcraft the most popular massively multiplayer online ( MMO ) game. MMOs create entire virtual universes for players and redefine how we play, learn, and relate to each other.

37 AGD: 1. History 37 Social games like Farmville and mobile games like Angry Birds shake up the games industry. Millions of people who never would have considered themselves gamers now while away hours playing games on new platforms like Facebook and the iPhone.2009

38 AGD: 1. History 38 The indie game movement comes of age with the tremendous popularity of Minecraft, the addictive brick-building game from Swedish developer Markus Persson (coded in Java).2010

39 AGD: 1. History 39 New types of controllers Online gaming Mobile games Motion control changes game play Rise of casual PC games 2. Trends

40 AGD: 1. History 40 NES and PC gaming had driving wheels and aircraft joysticks in the 1990's, New controllers in 2000's included: o a soft plastic mat foot control for Dance Dance Revolution o Samba De Amigo's maraca controllers o Donkey Kong bongo controller 2.1. Alternate controllers

41 AGD: 1. History 41 Guitar Hero -- a guitar-shaped controllers for the PlayStation 2. Sony: the EyeToy peripheral, a camera that could detect player movement, for the PlayStation 2.

42 AGD: 1. History 42 Return of the virtual reality head-mounted display: o the Oculus Rift o developer kits available since March 2014 o consumer versions due out in 2015 o optional treadmill

43 AGD: 1. History 43 Massively multiplayer online role-playing games (MMORPGs) o significant titles for the PC market included RuneScape, World of Warcraft, EverQuest, and Ultima Online 2.2 Online gaming

44 AGD: 1. History 44 Older arcade-style games have become popular again on mobile phones, since they are simpler to play and implement. Mobile phone gaming revenues: o > 1 billion dollars in 2003 o > 5 billion dollars in 2007, a quarter of all videogaming revenue 2.3 Mobile games

45 AGD: 1. History 45 More advanced phones have added to the appeal of mobile phone gaming: o Nokia N-Series in 2005 o iPhone in 2007 o Android on multiple platforms since 2005 New features such as twin cameras, easy multimedia recording, accelerometer, GPS, compass, suggest new game types.

46 AGD: 1. History 46 The Wii Remote has been very successful. But motion controls tend to be slow, inaccurate. Various add-on attachments adapt the Wii Remote to specific games, such as the Wii Zapper for shooting games and the Wii Wheel for driving games. 2.4 Motion control

47 AGD: 1. History 47 The Balance Board Microsoft Kinect Sensor The PlayStation Move (+ Eye Toy)

48 AGD: 1. History 48 Games with limited complexity for short play. Many are puzzle games o Popcap's Bejeweled and PlayFirst's Diner Dash 2.5 Rise of casual PC games

49 AGD: 1. History 49 The biggest hit is The Sims, which has become the best selling computer game of all time.

50 AGD: 1. History 50 In 2008, social network games began gaining mainstream popularity following the release of Happy Farm in China. The most popular social network game is FarmVille, which has over 70 million active users worldwide.

51 3. Influential Early Games Dragon Warrior Alone in the Dark SimCity Wizardry Doom Pong Wolfenstein 3D Dune II Super Mario 64 Half-Life Grand Theft Auto III Prince of Persia

52 AGD: 1. History 52 First graphically-rich Dungeons & Dragons-type game for home computers. The release coincided with the height of D&D's popularity in the USA. Wizardry (1981)

53 AGD: 1. History 53 First role-playing video game (RPG) in the Dragon Quest series. More emphasis on storytelling and emotional involvement, and exposed the Western game genre to Japanese manga. Dragon Warrior (1986)

54 AGD: 1. History 54 Originally a 2D platform game, but the series switched to 3D in Included intelligent puzzles, deadly traps, sprawling non-scrolling levels, fluid animation. Prince of Persia (1989)

55 AGD: 1. History 55 City-building simulation. Introduced goal-centered, timed play. SimCity (1989)

56 AGD: 1. History 56 Innovations included: o textures, a first-person gun-grasping hand, switchable weapons, ammunition counts Popularized shareware game distribution Wolfenstein 3D (1992)

57 AGD: 1. History 57 Made real-time strategy (RTS) games popular. New ideas: o mouse controls, world map, framed interface, fog-of-war feature Dune II (1992)

58 AGD: 1. History 58 Started the survival horror game genre, setting the standard for later games such as Resident Evil and Silent Hill Alone in the Dark (1992)

59 AGD: 1. History 59 One of the best 3D platform games. New ideas: o analog control of characters, dynamic camera Super Mario 64 (1996)

60 AGD: 1. History 60 New ideas: o immersive story, episodic chapters, scripted game events, behaviour AI The Half-Life game engine can be licensed for free, encouraging other games. Half-Life (1998)

61 AGD: 1. History 61 Game world freedom: o users can play the non-linear story -- or not o many side-missions, mini-games Grand Theft Auto III (2001)

62 AGD: 1. History 62 Activision Electronic Arts LucasArts Blizzard Id Software 4. Some Game Studios

63 AGD: 1. History 63 Founded by former Atari programmers Introduced the “royalties” system still employed by consol makers todayActivision

64 AGD: 1. History 64 o Created in 1982, now the largest game company o New ideas: company treats its staff like artists created in-house tools to aid cross-platform development handles its own distribution Electronic Arts (EA)

65 AGD: 1. History 65 Formed in 1982 as an offshoot of LucasFilm Ltd. Released Maniac Mansion in 1987 Many adventure and Star Wars games LucasArts

66 AGD: 1. History 66 o Started in o Released one of the important early Real-Time Strategy games, Warcraft, in 1994 o Their World of Warcraft is the fastest selling PC game in historyBlizzard

67 AGD: 1. History 67 o Formed in 1991 o Successfully utilizes shareware to make money from games. o Created the important first-person shooter, DOOM id Software


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