Presentation on theme: "“Exploiting Commercial Games for Military Use” October 20-21 2004 TNO, The Hague, Netherlands NATO Modeling & Simulation Group."— Presentation transcript:
“Exploiting Commercial Games for Military Use” October TNO, The Hague, Netherlands NATO Modeling & Simulation Group
Aims UK MoD led, hosted by Netherlands (TNO) Share national experience Identify: –best practice –Lessons learned –barriers to further exploitation –Areas for collaboration Networking: –Research community –Military –Internationally
International Perspectives Australia- Australian Defence Simulation Office Danish Defence Research EstablishmentDenmark- Danish Defence Research Establishment France- DGA French Ministry of DefenceFrance- DGA French Ministry of Defence Holland- Royal Netherlands Army RNLAHolland- Royal Netherlands Army RNLA Sweden- Swedish Defence Research Agency US- U.S. Army Research InstituteUS- U.S. Army Research Institute US- U.S. Marine CorpsUS- U.S. Marine Corps Germany- eSim Games (Industry)Germany- eSim Games (Industry) UK- Directorate of Analysis Experimentation & Simulation (MoD)
Australian Perspective Australian Defence Simulation Office Commercial Computer Games in the Australian Department of Defence
Why are the Australian Defence Simulation Office Interested in Commercial Games? Expose Defence members to simulation. Grow knowledge and skill base. Raise profile of simulation. Keep abreast of developments. Research commissioned by ADSO identified utility of COTS games. Being used anyway- needs co-ordination. Supports “golf bag” approach to simulation. Cultural change.
What Makes a Game Useable? At least some of the following: –Robust user community. –Multiplayer functionality. –Scenario creation. –Open database. –After Action Review. –Developer engagement. –Validation and accreditation. –Support. –Use elsewhere - and for what. ADSO evaluates games against following “Six Criteria” 1)User Requirement 2)Representations 3)Data availability and reliability 4)Technology 5)Confidence building approaches 6)Cost/benefit
LevelIndividualCollective SoldierVBS, SB SquadSB, FSW, VBS?VBS, SB PlatoonSB, VBS?VBS, SB CoySB, CMVBS, SB BnTACOPS, CM, SB?TACOPS, SB? BdeTACOPS, DA, HTTRTACOPS, DA DivDA, TACOPS NavyHarpoon3, Fleet CommandHarpoon3 AirMS Flight Sim? Air War over Vietnam?? JointHarpoon3, UVHarpoon3 VBS- Virtual Battlefield Systems, SB – SteelbeastsPro, FSW-Full Spectrum Warrior, CM- Combat Mission, DA-Decisive Action, HTTR-Highway to the Reich, UV-Uncommon Valor Commercial Games Products used by ADSO
Australian Conclusions There is currently a small but significant effort. Good support can be achieved with systematic approach. Cultural change is making it easier. Commercial games are just one club in the simulation golf bag.
Danish Perspective Danish Defence Research Establishment (DDRE) Using Falcon 4.0 (F-16 simulator) for Tactical Training
Falcon 4.0 for Tactical Training Enhancements - Flight models (aircraft behaviour) - EW - Radar - Graphics Issues - Field of view is too small. - Takes time to get used to looking around. - Instruments takes up a too large fraction of the screen. - Flight model not exact, behaviour is slightly different.
Benefits of the Falcon 4.0 Simulator Things that can be trained: (according to an F-16 pilot with Falcon 4 experience) Flying (basic experience) Systems training (RWR, Radar) Formation/Coordination BFM (Basic Fighter Man.) ACM (Air Combat Man.) BVR (Beyond Visual Range) COMOA (Combined Air Ops.) A-G (Air to ground weapons) Debriefing S-A (Surface to Air) Training EW Basics
Danish Conclusion Falcon 4.0 is advanced and very flexible, allowing “modding” without much difficulty. DDRE has developed an EW tactical training program for F-16 pilots, based on Falcon 4.0 Lots of possibilities for other products.
French Perspective DGA French Ministry of Defence The use of GHOST RECON for Training Infantry
GHOST RECON Scope –Tactical Education (Individual and Collective) and Training for Infantry’s platoons and squads before field exercises –Optimize forces readiness prior field exercises –Improve efficiency, time and cost Assessment –Study low cost products as Commercial Games –Provide recommendations to deploy an already existing system –Refine Operational requirements
INSTINCT INSTINCT = GHOST RECON + French Improvements INSTINCT exercises are defined according to the same process as field exercises AAR due to GHOST RECON particularities is only limited to replay the exercises Less than 2 hours INSTINCT tutorial prior exercises Short drills (4 Hours) –To learn procedures –To get the know-how –To react with reflexes
French Conclusion Soldiers make same mistakes in INSTINCT & Field exercises –Easier to prove and explain (Wrong position, Unprotected movement) Field behavior is better with soldiers educated with INSTINCT –Better fire sectors and objectives designation Short Drills are recommended –Movement, Support, Intelligence, Orders and Reports Pleasure and Entertainment improve the courses –Ease the understanding (Solders learn faster) –Management of Opposite Forces is essential to avoid “Game Play”
Dutch Perspective Netherlands Aerospace Laboratory NLR Flight Simulation Games and their Training Value
The media spectrum – costs vs. benefits* Games**DMTETAircraft***PTTFMS PTT - Part-Task Trainer FMS- Full Mission Simulator DMT- Distributed Mission Training ET- Embedded Training Teaming Information handling Organising Communicating Flying Tactical * not experimentally validated ** multi-player, HOTAS + keyboard *** fourship Teaming Information handling Organising Communicating Flying Tactical
Dutch Conclusions Current generation games could be a valuable add-on to the existing training media spectrum. Strong points: teaming, communication, info handling. Weak points: flying and organising skills. Most air forces do not officially use Games for training purposes.
Swedish Perspective Game-based driving simulator for the Swedish CBRN demonstrator system Swedish Defence Research Agency
The Swedish CBRN-demonstrator system (Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear, CBRN) Requirements Requirement –An event engine for the real NBCR-demonstrator system Objective –Reduce time, cost and support organization when training the CBRN staff. Facts Length: m Height: 2.95 m Width: 2.95m Weight: Kg Load: Kg Speed: < 110 Patria Vehicles, Finland
The simulated NBC-vehicle Characteristics Correct 3D-vehicle regarding weight, length, height and other external attributes. Generic physical behaviour Driver’s and operator’s seat correct modelled Driver has third or first person view Operator same interface as the NBC- Dart Connectible with NBC/PC-Dart for message exchange
Swedish Conclusions Simple, easy to use driving simulator for concept evaluation, demonstration, basic training etc. Build with open-source, gaming- and entertainment technology. Game-based interface and principles Rapid deployment No classified data Good enough!
US Perspective U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioural and Social Sciences Design Characteristics of a PC-based Game that Influence Instruction and Motivation
Training Using Commercial Games Literature suggests that Games: Are engaging. Provide flexibility in training. Provide “hands on” experience. Provide contextual learning.
Questions about Motivation Features that Motivate - What about the “America’s Army” game would make you want to play the game again? - Which section of the basic combat training did you like the most, and why? Features that Do Not Motivate - Which section of the basic combat training did you like the least, and why? - What would you change about the “America’s Army” game? Percentage of Responses in each Category
US Army Conclusion Strength of training games is in procedural learning, and the procedures learned should match the training objectives. Instructional content should be integrated with the progression of the game. Extensive printed text should be avoided; it may be ignored and is less likely to be recalled than graphic images or spoken text. Appropriate levels of challenge, control, exploration, and realism can increase motivation.
Acquisition Methods Straight Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) –Used as is, no modification Modified COTS for Specific Marine Use –Marine specific requirements i.e. models, terrain, behavior Minor modification Initial Investments in COTS Product –Marine subject matter experts involved at ground zero and throughout development for authenticity. Government Off The Shelf Development -Ground zero development for Marines, no commercial release
Experience Leads to Better War Fighting Infantry Cognitive Skills Training
Crawl, Walk, Run Approach Mon-Tue –Familiarization and Team exercises Wednesday –Squad Exercises and rehearsals Thursday –Platoon Exercises and rehearsals Friday –Combined Arms, after-action review, comments
From Sand-table Exercises To Live Training Marine Corps’ Approach To Training Begin planning Arrange reconnaissance Make reconnaissance Complete order Issue order Supervise Execute Order After Action Review
Conclusions Challenges Resistance mentality –“I don’t want my Marines sitting in A/C playing Nintendo all day” –Baby boomers vs. Millennium Generation Hardware issues Software Development Desensitization/Psychological Issues Facilitation –Mission editing and contractor support –Subject matter experts Marketing and Distribution
Germany - Industry Perspective eSim Games – Steel Beasts Professional Limits of the Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) Approach
Current Situation The Market - The market supports the idea of applying the COTS concept to computer games - Many computer games deal with combat simulation - Yet the economic framework affects the practical application of a sound idea Market Limitations - Consumers demand to be entertained - Armies demand reliability
Consumer Entertainment Market Receding market trend for PC game titles –Less profitable than console games –Software piracy –Incompatibilities/hardware diversity First Person Shooters dominant genre, also “Real Time Strategy” Simulations and Wargames: - 5% market share, and dropping
Consequences Number of developers for simulation games is dropping Publishers abandon the market segment No more development funding! Major developers concentrate on mass market compatible games
Profit distribution 60% COTS relevant titles
Market Actors: Developers Dependent developers: –Essentially owned by large publishers –Fixed (large) budget for development –Publisher influences genre choice Independent developers: –The lucky few (Valve, Blizzard, ID) Filthy rich, sell blockbusters and engines –The not-so-lucky few (us and others) Shoestring budget development
Market Actors: Developers Fast. Good. Cheap. Pick two! High quality Low cost High speed
COTS procurement recommendations $100,000.- development budgets for Divisions, and Schools $50,000.- procurement budgets for brigades Determined leadership of Simulation Officers Do not impose limits on “code recycling” for consumer market
COTS project requirements Game developer –Must be devoted to and knowledgeable in the subject matter –Must be customer oriented –Must be able to work for three years without funding –Discretion & Reliability Army –Avoid “feature creep” wish lists –Accept partial solutions – embrace fast development cycles as a chance –Support developer with unclassified information –Understand developer’s business model
Conclusion COTS is a sound idea, and can be a great chance for both armies and game developers Technological chances are obvious Economical challenges are most important in the long run, and can be mastered
UK Dismounted Infantry Virtual Environment - DIVE 1
DIVE 1 Half Life –Very Popular –First Person Shooter –On-Line Gaming Capability –Easy to Adapt –(now costs <£10)
DIVE – Representation of Copehill Down
“DIVE 1” Copehill Down
Media Interest in DIVE
“DIVE 2” Copehill Down
“We found the DIVE system an excellent training tool which quickly improved our skills and enabled us to try out things that would normally be far too time-consuming or dangerous.” Cpl Owen, Section Comd, 1 R ANGLIAN extract from ‘The Castle’ magazine – Summer 2003
Further Information UK Contact:- Andy Fawkes DAES, Other Contacts:- All slides can be accessed at:- Login: RTOAuthor Password: StoesouS