Presentation on theme: "Management 2: Past to Present (and Beyond) 3: Global Dimensions"— Presentation transcript:
1 Management 2: Past to Present (and Beyond) 3: Global Dimensions Present Like a Pro (time permitting)
2 Updates:Anything exciting happen (from an Organizational Behaviour perspective) over the past week?Any questions?Let’s focus on our “reflection” from last class
3 Development of Major Management Theories Development of Management TheoriesHistoricalBackgroundpreclassicalcontri-butionsThe Early YearsclassicaltheoristsThe Early YearshumanresourcesapproachThe Early YearsquantitativeapproachRecent YearsintegrativeapproachesScientificmanagementOperationsresearchProcessFig. 2-1 Development of Major Management TheoriesManagement has been evolving for thousands of years.Management is a field that has only undergone systematic investigation, acquired a common body of knowledge and become a formal discipline of study, in the past several hundred years and most particularly, in the last century.Historical examples of contributors include Adam Smith (division of labor), the advent of the industrial revolution and the machine age, and the establishment of large business by such entrepreneurs as Carnegie and Rockefeller who helped to formalize management practices.The classical theorists are divided into two groups:SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT: Taylor and the “one best way” for a job to be done; the Gilbreths and their therbligs classification scheme; and Henry Gantt and his chart for managers used as a scheduling device for planning and controlling work.GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE THEORISTS: Writers who developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice.Henri Fayol developed 14 principles of management (p. 42) which he considered to be universal truths of management that are shared by all managers in all type of organizations and that can be taught in school.Max Weber developed a theory of the bureaucracy, an ideal type structure (p. 43). Like scientific management, it emphasizes rationality, predictability, impersonality, technical competence, and authoritarianism. His “ideal type” can be used to describe many contemporary organizations.Early advocatesSystemsGeneraladministrativetheoristsHawthornestudiesManagementscienceContingencyHuman relationsmovementBehavioralscience theorists
4 Historical Background Division of LabourAdam Smith (1776) - “The Wealth of Nations” Invisible hand of the market; also showed how division of labour could be successfully utilizedIndustrial Revolution - UKHenry Ford - “Fordism”
5 Classical Contributors Scientific ManagementFrederick W Taylor -“ONE BEST WAY”Bethlehem/Midvale SteelPrinciples:1) Develop a Science for work2) Scientifically select, train, and develop workers3) Co-operate with workers to ensure all is done this way4) Divide work equallyA “high” priced man - Schmidt
6 One Best Way POINT - COUNTER POINT Do you agree that there is “one best way” to do any job?
7 General Administrative Theorists Professional MetaphorMax Weber (1890s) - Bureaucracy;Iron-cage of RationalityHenri Fayol (1916) - 14 principles of ManagementMary Parket Follett (1933) - Spirit of compromise and co-operation
8 Human Resources Approach Elton Mayo - Hawthorne StudiesMaslow – Hierarchy of needsMcGregor – Theory X and YChester Barnard - “Functions of the Executive” - authority comes from willingness of subordinates to accept it.
10 Contemporary Schools Systems Contingency School Cultural School EcologyContingency SchoolNo universal answerOutcomes “depend” on certain thingsCultural SchoolOrganizational cultureGlobal AwarenessKnowledge ManagementEvidence-Based MGMT
16 Stranger in a Strange Land Award winning book (1961)The story focuses on a human raised on Mars and his adaptation to, and understanding of, humans and their culture.While we are from the same planet – some things different cultures “do” will seem very strange to you!
17 Making the Strange Familiar Problem based learningFocus: You will be leading a company in another countryTask: What skills do you need to have to be a successful international leader? What dangers do you need to watch out for as you lead in a foreign country?Come up with a “list of learning” points you would like to acquire.
18 Session Learning Goals Appreciate the different ways to understand culture.Understand our own attitudes and perspectivesDevelop our Cultural Intelligence
19 Stages in becoming an International Manager Confusion: first contacts leave you anxious, uncomfortable and in need of adviceSmall victories: interactions bring success, confidence growsThe honeymoon: a time of wonderment, local ways viewed positivelyIrritation and rage: negatives overwhelm positives, you become criticalReality: time of rebalancing, enjoy new culture while accommodating less desirable elements
20 Ways to look at Country Cultures HofstedeTrompenaarsLanguage ContextTime contextSpace contextNOTE: it is these similarities/differences to your culture that you will both adore and dislike about your international assignments!!
21 Power Distance: the degree to which a society accepts unequal distribution of power High Power Distance:Respect for age, status, titlesTolerant of power by following rules and accept differences in rankChina, India, PhilippinesLow Power DistanceTendency towards informality, casual dress,Australia, Canada, USA
22 Individualism / Collectivism: the degree of individuals being integrated into groups Collectivistic: cultures whose members are strongly integrated into groups or familiesChina, Mexico, ThailandIndividualistic: cultures have members who are only loosely connected and who are responsible for themselvesCanada, USA, NZ
23 Masculinity / Femininity: explains in how far a society is characterized through Masculine:extrovert and competitive behaviourJapan, Mexico, CanadaFemininity:is expressed through caring attributes and the emphasis on harmonyThailand, Sweden
24 Uncertainty Avoidance: tolerance towards uncertainties, change and risk High Uncertainty AvoidanceThese cultures have a preference for structure, order, planning and predictabilityCultures with high uncertainty avoidance often show their emotions more compared to cultures with low uncertainty avoidance.Japan, FranceLow Uncertainty AvoidanceThese cultures display openness to change and innovationUSA, Sweden
25 Long-term / short-term orientation The degree that a culture focuses on long term or short term time horizons or goalsLong-termFocus on values of persistence thrift, patience and willingness to work for long-term successChina, India, JapanShort-termImpatient, desire for quick gratificationUSA, Canada, Netherlands
28 Managerial Application You are a consultant helping a firm try to negotiate a partnership with a foreign company – drawing from these 2 cultural perspectives – what would you do to help the firm on how to negotiate to ensure success if the two sides were:Canada and ChinaIndia and AustraliaIran/Saudi Arabia and FranceSouth Africa and Pakistan
29 Trompenaars’s Framework Universalism vs Particularismrules or relationships most importantIndividualism vs Collectivismthe individual or the group most importantNeutral vs Emotionalthe range of feelings expressedSpecific vs Diffusethe range of personal interaction (work and outside)Achievement vs Prescriptivehow status is accorded (merit or class)TimeSequential or synchronicEnvironmentControl of the environment versus working in harmony with nature
30 Context: how cultures use language High Context:These cultures rely on nonverbal and situational cues as well as on spoken or written words in communicationOften, after relationships are established and a context for communication is exists is it possible to make business dealsThailand, MalaysiaLow Context:These cultures emphasize communication via spoken or written wordsFor example, these cultures say or write what they mean, and we mean what we sayUSA, Canada, Germany
31 How Cultures use Time Monochronic Polychronic People in these types of cultures tend to do one thing at a timePolychronicPeople from these cultures tend to try and accomplish many different things at onceExample: A Canadian visitor (monochronic culture) to an Egyptian client (polychronic culture) might be frustrated by continued interruptions as the client greets and deals with people flowing in and out of his office.
32 How Cultures use Space This is a silent part of culture Personal space – how close to each other to people talk, stand?What is valued?How are public spaces organized?
34 Cultural Intelligence CQ – your ability to work across culturesDrive – interest in adapting to cross cultural issuesKnowledge – understand cultural similarities and differencesStrategy – draw from their awareness to think and planAction – adapt own behaviour to other cultures
35 DriveAnswer each question using the scale and then total your score ________1: Strongly agree, 2: Agree, 3: Neutral, 4: Disagree, 5: Strongly disagree
36 KnowledgeAnswer each question using the scale and then total your score ________1: Strongly agree, 2: Agree, 3: Neutral, 4: Disagree, 5: Strongly disagree
37 StrategyAnswer each question using the scale and then total your score ________1: Strongly agree, 2: Agree, 3: Neutral, 4: Disagree, 5: Strongly disagree
38 ActionAnswer each question using the scale and then total your score ________1: Strongly agree, 2: Agree, 3: Neutral, 4: Disagree, 5: Strongly disagree
39 Cultural Intelligence CQ – your ability to work across culturesDrive – interest in adapting to cross cultural issuesKnowledge – understand cultural similarities and differencesStrategy – draw from their awareness to think and planAction – adapt own behaviour to other culturesHOW did you do?Who are you now.
40 McCain Foods Case Overcome the Challenges? Canadian managers / Chinese business colleagues?Clients – own brand name?
41 Next DayRead Chapter Cpt. 4: Ethical Behaviour; and Cpt. 5: EntrepreneurshipDiscussion Assignment – Read Case 5 (p.168); do the “Further Research” question and be prepared to discuss your findings.
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