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Chi-Ken Lu Physics Department, Simon Fraser University, Canada

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Presentation on theme: "Chi-Ken Lu Physics Department, Simon Fraser University, Canada"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chi-Ken Lu Physics Department, Simon Fraser University, Canada
CPT-symmetry, supersymmetry, and zero-mode in generalized Fu-Kane systems Chi-Ken Lu Physics Department, Simon Fraser University, Canada

2 Acknowledgement Collaboration with Prof. Igor Herbut, Simon Fraser University Supported by National Science of Council, Taiwan and NSERC, Canada Special thanks to Prof. Sungkit Yip, Academia Sinica

3 Contents of talk Motivation: Majorana fermion --- A half fermion
Realization of Majorana fermion in superconducting system: Studies of zero-modes. Pairing between Dirac fermions on TI surface: Zero-mode inside a vortex of unconventional symmetry Full vortex bound spectrum in Fu-Kane vortex Hamiltonian: Hidden SU(2) symmetry and supersymmetry Realization of two-Fermi-velocity graphene in optical lattice: Hidden SO(3)XSO(3) symmetry of 4-site hopping Hamiltonian. Conclusion

4 Ordinary fermion statistics
Occupation is integer Pauli exclusion principle

5 Majorana fermion statistics
Definition of Majorana fermion Occupation of Half? Exchange statistics still intact

6 Re-construction of ordinary fermion from Majorana fermion
Restore an ordinary fermion from two Majorana fermions Distinction from Majorana fermion

7 An ordinary fermion out of two separated Majorana fermions

8 Two vortices: Degenerate ground-state manifold and unconventional statistics
1 2

9 Four vortices: Emergence of non-Abelian statistics

10 N vortices: Braiding group in the Hilbert space of dimension 2^{N/2}

11 Zero-mode in condensed matter system: Rise of topology
1D case: Peierl instability in polyacetylene. 2D version of Peierls instability: Vortex pattern of bond distortion in graphene. 2D/3D topological superconductors: Edge Andreev states and vortex zero-modes. 2D gapped Dirac fermion systems: Proximity-indeuced superconducting TI surface

12 Domain wall configuration
Zero-mode soliton

13 SSH’s continuum limit component on A sublattice
component on B sublattice

14 Nontrivial topology and zero-mode
~tanh(x) 1 3

15 2D generalization of Peierl instability

16 Half-vortex in p+ip superconductors

17 Topological interpretation of BdG Hamiltonian of p+ip SC
full S2 μ>0 μ<0 ky kx

18 2x2 second order diff. eq Supposedly, there are 4 indep. sol.’s e component h component can be rotated into 3th component u-iv=0 from 2 of the 4 sol’s are identically zero 2 of the 4 sol’s are decaying ones


20 Discrete symmetry from Hamiltonian’s algebraic structure
The beauty of Clifford and su(2) algebras

21 Hermitian matrix representation of Clifford algebra
real imaginary

22 From Dirac equation to Klein-Gordon equation: Square!
Homogeneous massive Dirac Hamiltonian. m=0 can correspond to graphene case. 4 components from valley and sublattice degrees of freedom.

23 Imposing physical meaning to these Dirac matrices: context of superconducting surface of TI
Breaking of spin-rotation symmetry in the normal state represents the generator of spin rotation in xy plane Real and imaginary part of SC order parameter Represents the U(1) phase generator

24 CPT from Dirac Hamiltonian with a mass-vortex
Chiral symmetry operator Anti-unitary Time-reversal operator Jackiw Rossi NPB 1981 n zero-modes for vortex of winding number n Particle-hole symmetry operator

25 Generalized Fu-Kane system: Jackiw-Rossi-Dirac Hamiltonian
azimuthal angle around vortex center Real/imaginary s-wave SC order parameters Zeeman field along z chemical potential spin-momentum fixed kinetic energy

26 Broken CT, unbroken P T C P

27 Spectrum parity and topology of order parameter
Zero-mode in generalized Fu-Kane system with unconventional pairing symmetry Spectrum parity and topology of order parameter

28 Arxiv:



31 Pairing symmetry on helicity-based band
Parity broken α≠0 Metallic surface of TI

32 Mixed-parity SC state of momentum-spin helical state
Δ+ Δ- P-wave S-wave

33 Topology associated with s-wave singlet and p-wave triplet order parameters
Trivial superconductor Nontrivial Z2 superconductor -k k p-wave limit s-wave limit LuYip PRB Sato Fujimoto 2008 Yip JLTP 2009

34 Pairing symmetry and spectrum in uniform state on TI surface
gapless gapped gapped s-wave: p-wave 2 p-wave 1:

35 Uniform state spectrum for mixed-parity symmetry

36 Localized bound state inside a single vortex

37 Solving ODE for zero-mode
Orbital coupling To magnetic field s-wave case Lu Herbut PRB 2010 μ≠0 and gapped Winding number odd: 1 zero-mode Winding number even: 0 zero-mode See also Fukui PRB 2010 Zeeman coupling

38 Triplet p-wave gap and zero-mode
p-wave case h2>μ2 Zero-mode becomes un-normalizable when chemical potential μ is zero. p-wave sc op

39 Zero-mode wave function and spectrum parity
s-wave case p-wave case

40 Mixed-parity gap and zero-mode: it exists, but the spectrum parity varies as…
ODE for the zero-mode Two-gap SC smoothly connected at Fermi surface + + + -

41 Spectrum-reflection parity of zero-mode in different pairing symmetry
Δ+>0 p-wave like Δ+ s-wave like Δ-

42 Accidental (super)-symmetry inside a infinitely-large vortex
Degenerate Dirac vortex bound states

43 Hidden SU(2) and super-symmetry out of Jackiw-Rossi-Dirac Hamiltonian
Seradjeh NPB 2008 Teo Kane PRL 2010 r

44 A simple but non-trivial Hamiltonian appears
Fermion representation of matrix representation of Clifford algebra Boson representation of (x,k)

45 SUSY form of vortex Hamiltonian and its simplicity in obtaining eigenvalues
Herbut Lu PRB 2011 f1 f2 b1 b2

46 Degeneracy calculation: Fermion-boson mixed harmonic oscillators
1 2 f b Degeneracy =

47 Accidental su(2) symmetry: Label by angular momentum
co-rotation y α2 β2 x β1 α1 An obvious constant of motion [H,J3]=[H,J2]=[H,J1]=0 Accidental generators

48 Resultant degeneracy from two values of j

49 Degeneracy pattern Lenz vector operator J+,J-,J3

50 Wavefunction of vortex bound states
1 2 b 1 2 f b 1 2 f b 1 2 f b

51 Fermion representation and chiral symmetry
1 2 b 1 2 f b chiral-even , 1 2 f b b , b b b f chiral-odd 1 2

52 Accidental super-symmetry generators: Super-symmetric representation of quaternion algebra
Lu Herbut JPhysA 2011

53 Algebraic approach to find remaining square roots of H2

54 The desired operators do the job.
Super-symmetry algebra

55 Connection between spectrum and degeneracy
can be shown vanishing

56 Chemical potential and Zeeman field

57 Perturbed spectrum

58 so(3)xso(3) algebraic structure within 4x4 Hermitian matrices
Two-velocity Weyl fermions in optical lattice

59 Two-velocity Weyl fermions on optical lattice

60 Hidden so(3)xso(3) algebra from two-velocity Weyl fermion model
|u| |v|

61 Chiral-block Hamiltonian

62 Conclusions and prospects
Clifford algebra and su(2) algebra help gain insight into hidden symmetry Zero-modes of Fu-Kane Hamiltonian survive when gap in uniform state is not closed Ordinary fermion representation of Gamma matrices and super-symmetric form of Fu-Kane Hamiltonian Linear dispersion and lessons from high-energy physics: Zoo of mass in condensed matter physics Dirac bosons: One-way propagation EM mode at the edge of photonic crystal

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