TTYN: Read the following statement and describe what it means “The Market revolution was national in scope, but had significant regional variations” What Was the Market Revolution? The emergence and growth of manufacturing and industrial revolution in New England and Northeast cities The Emergence of commercialization of farming driven by transportation revolution in Northwest The continued growth of the cotton industry in the South The Market Revolution
Implications of the Market Revolution? Result: regional and specific economies emerged Provided the framework for political, social, and economic sectionalism From local to all over the world A different society was developing Transportation Revolution Steamboats (1817 20 boats to 775 in 1855) Railroads (1830 13 miles to 31,000 in 1860) Canals Roads (began to develop in the 1800’s (turnpikes = toll roads) The Market Revolution
Why the Erie Canal? Surge in western population Limited access to eastern markets Canal boom: the Erie Canal, 1825 364 miles long, 40 ft wide, 4 ft deep; Linked Great Lakes to Albany and NYC; Transformed the northern economy The Market Revolution
I've got a mule, and her name is Sal, Fif-teen miles on the Er-ie canal, She's a good ol' worker and a good ol' pal, Fifteen miles on the Er-ie can-al, We've hauled some barges in our day, Filled with lum-ber coal and hay, And ev'ry inch of the way we know From Al-ba-ny to Buff-a-lo OH We'd better look round for a job old gal, Fif-teen miles - on the Er-ie can-al, You bet your life I wouldn't part with Sal, Fif-teen miles on the Er-ie can-al, Giddap 'there gal we've passed that lock, We'll make Rome fore six o'clock, So, it's one more trip and then we'll go, Right back home to Buff-a-lo OH……. The Market Revolution The Erie Canal Song Low bridge ev'-ry bod-y down, Low bridge for we're com-in to a town, And you al-ways know your neighbor, You'll always know your pal, If you've ev-er navigated on the Er-ie can-al
The Market Revolution Erie Canal reduces transportation costs by 90-95% Prices of Consumer goods go down Price of farm product stabilize and remain stable Exciting and very opportunistic time Produces a consumer society Communication revolution
The Market Revolution Transportation of newspaper Invention of the steam press Cheap books Cheap newspaper – now the whole country can remain informed, which makes for a better citizen, more informed citizen Telegraph Annihilation of time and space
The Market Revolution Economies and Regions Specialize Individual and Regional Individual Farmer develops a cash crop, has a surplus NY State specifically = dairy farmers (concentrates on one product/crop)
The Market Revolution The Market Revolution – The “brainchild “ of Alexander Hamilton Workers become de-skilled (artisans); become specialist at one specific skill Ultimately it lowers wages; lower wages, but they are employed TTYN: Who benefits from this specialization? Consumers benefits due to the lower costs for production (mass consumption vs. mass distribution)
The Market Revolution Regional Implications Southern States Agricultural, cotton “The” Invention that changed everything – The Cotton Gin 1793 What happens to the South A society that is totally devoted to cotton TTYN: What segment(s) of society will be affected by this change? Plantation Owners and Slaves Greater need for slavery (slavery grows) Cotton becomes extremely profitable Slave values 1802 - $600 1860 - $1800 No. of slaves 1802 -1.5M 1860 - 4M Slave values 1802 - $600 1860 - $1800 No. of slaves 1802 -1.5M 1860 - 4M
The Market Revolution Northeast Prior to the Market Revolution Pre-industrial manufacturing The workshop system The putting-out system Impact of the Revolution Industry (factories) Need for people and more people Need capital Power source (rivers) Rivers with falls; i.e. Merrimack River in Mass.
The Market Revolution Northwest ( the Midwest) Agricultural - wheat, corn and soybeans Moving, moving, moving Acquire the land (there is a lot of it)
Early Inventions during the late 18 th and early 19th centuries The Cotton Gin The Textile Mill The Spinning Wheel Bleaching: The Progress of cotton The Steam Engine The Erie Canal TTYN: What was the impact of each? How did the economies of the North and South change? What were the results of these changes? The Market Revolution
Small Group Activity The Lowell Mill Girls Reading
Topics We Will Examine Jeffersonian Democracy Limited Central Government and Pro States Rights Judicial powers strengthen Territorial expansion The Demise of the Federalist Party Revival of the Two-Party System
Jeffersonian Democracy Abandoned Aristocratic Democracy TTYN: What is an Aristocrat? Jefferson: The Founder of American Democracy? Wrote the Declaration of Independence Led and largely created the Republican Party, by which the Federalists, who were anti-democratic, were unseated First President who believed in democracy and sought to establish it Jefferson – A democrat for the people, not of the people!
Jeffersonian Democracy Thomas Jefferson biographer once wrote that “there were probably twice of thrice many four-horse carriages in Virginia before the revolution as there are at present time; but the number of two-horse carriages may be ten, or even twenty times as great as at the former period.” TTYN: What does this statement illustrate? The Progress of Democracy
Jeffersonian Democracy TTYN: Read the passage below. What is Jefferson telling the reader? The ‘real’ meaning. “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it.”
Jeffersonian Democracy Clash With Hamilton Hoped plutocracy would evolve into aristocracy Corruption as the best method for causing plutocracy to prevail over democracy Argued that the President and Senators should be chosen for life. leader of the Federalists Hamilton advocated the growth of manufactures Child Labor was good Dislike democracy Admired England and aimed at making America resemble Jefferson stood for democracy and agriculture, Hamilton for aristocracy and urban wealth
Jeffersonian Democracy Jefferson’s goal as president: Restore the principles of the American Revolution Why? Federalists levied oppressive taxes Stretched the provisions of the Constitution Established a national bank, which created bastion of wealth and special privileges for a few Federalist also had subverted civil liberties and expanded the powers of the central government at the expense of the states. Jefferson wanted a return to basic republican principles.
Jeffersonian Democracy The Meaning of Jefferson’s Democracy When he says “self-evident,” he means it. The essence of virtue is in doing good to others Believed in the innate goodness of man that gives the basis for his liberalism Believed that most men, on the whole, will follow their consciences. For a few exceptions, laws may be necessary; but in the main, liberty is all that is needful for the promotion of human happiness. Favored democracy by the masses Faith in the common man Strict interpretation of the constitution Favored a nation of farmers
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Repealed the Alien and Sedition Acts TTYN: What were the Alien and Sedition Acts? The Alien and Sedition Acts 1798 the United States was at the brink of war with France (XYZ Affair) Federalists believed that Democratic-Republican criticism of Federalist policies was disloyal and feared that aliens living in the United States would sympathize with the French during a war. Federalist-controlled Congress passed four laws, known as the Alien and Sedition Acts. Raised the residency requirements for citizenship from 5 to 14 years Authorized the President to deport aliens Permitted the arrest, imprisonment, and deportation of aliens during wartime. The Sedition Act made it a crime for American citizens to "print, utter, or publish..any false, scandalous, and malicious writing" about the Government. The laws were directed against Democratic-Republicans, the party typically favored by new citizens
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Whiskey Rebellion Excise tax imposed on whiskey in 1791 by the federal government, farmers in the western counties of Pennsylvania engaged in a series of attacks on excise agents. Jefferson believed that the purpose of government is to protect the “unalienable rights” of its citizens, and that these rights include “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.” People have the right to rebel Believed a little rebellion now and then was a good thing “…a medicine necessary for “the sound health of government.” “the first error was to pass it (the whiskey tax); the second was to enforce it; and the third, to make it the means of splitting this Union.”
Limited Central Government and Pro State Rights Jefferson believed that local government was most important Believed that the emphasis for government should concentrate within the county and state While President, Jefferson slashed government expenditures “I am not a friend to a very energetic government. It is always oppressive.” “Most bad government has grown out of too much government” Reduced the national debt Convinced Congress to cut the price of public lands and to extend credit to purchasers in order to encourage land ownership and rapid western settlement Reduced the size of the military Although Jefferson condemned Hamilton’s Financial Plan, he did authorize to incorporate the United State Bank
Jefferson’s War against the Judiciary Jefferson took office, not a single Republican served as a federal judge. Jefferson feared that the Federalists intended to use the courts to frustrate Republican plans. Jefferson’s Goal - weaken Federalist control of the federal judiciary. The Judiciary Act of 1801, which was passed by the lame-duck Federalist-dominated Congress five days before Adams's term expired. The law created 16 new federal judgeships, positions which President Adams promptly filled with Federalists. The act reduced the number of Supreme Court justices effective with the next vacancy, delaying Jefferson's opportunity to name a new Supreme Court justice. Jefferson's supporters in Congress repealed the Judiciary Act.
Jefferson’s War against the Judiciary Judiciary act of 1801 (Jefferson repealed) Compelled court to deliver commissions Marbury v. Madison Congress had no constitutional right to give federal courts the powers of Jud. Act Supreme Court Chief John Marshall Small Group Activity The Marshall Court
Territorial Expansion France forced Spain to relinquish claims to North America interior Louisiana Purchase 1803; cost 15M France sold to help fund Napoleons war Mississippi to the Rockies 13 states will result Lewis and Clark 1803-1806 Missouri to Columbia TTYN: Does the Louisiana Purchase depict Jefferson as an hypocrite? In other words, isn’t this “huge” purchase a symbol of ‘big’ government?
The Embargo Act Jefferson’s desperate attempt to avert war with Britain Jefferson and United States imposed an embargo on foreign trade. Jefferson believed the embargo as an idealistic experiment--a moral alternative to war. Believed that economic coercion would convince Britain and France to respect America’s neutral rights. The embargo was an unpopular and costly failure. Hurt the American economy far more than the British or French, and resulted in widespread smuggling. Farm prices fell sharply. Shippers suffered, Harbors filled with idle ships and nearly 30,000 sailors found themselves jobless. Jefferson believed that Americans would cooperate with the embargo out of a sense of patriotism.
The Embargo Act Instead, smuggling flourished, particularly through Canada. To enforce the embargo, Jefferson took steps that infringed on his most cherished principles: individual liberties and opposition to a strong central government. He mobilized the army and navy to enforce the blockade, and declared the Lake Champlain region of New York, along the Canadian border, in a state of insurrection. TTYN: How does this contradict with Jefferson’s doctrine regarding a limited Gov’t? Pressure to abandon the embargo mounted, and early in 1809, just 3 days before Jefferson left office, Congress repealed the embargo.
Defending American Rights on the High Seas Causes In 1809, Congress replaced the failed embargo with the Non- Intercourse Act Non-Intercourse Act -- Reopened trade with all nations except Britain and France. 1810, Non-Intercourse Act with a new measure, Macon's Bill Reopened trade with France and Britain. Stipulation -- that if either Britain or France agreed to respect America's neutral rights, the United States would immediately stop trade with the other nation. The War of 1812
Defending American Rights on the High Seas Causes Britain --Seizure and forced sale of merchant ships and their cargoes for allegedly violating the British blockade of Europe France -- declared a counterblockade of the British Isles and had seized American ships England was the chief offender because its Navy had greater command of the seas. Impressment -- capture of men from American vessels for forced service in the Royal Navy; pretext for impressment was the search for deserters, who, the British claimed, had taken employment on American vessels. The War of 1812
Why Go to War? War Hawks -- Southern congressmen favored war, even though it hurt the east To allow reopening of trade National Pride To stop the impressment of sailors Oh CANADA!!! The War of 1812
Not everyone in the US wanted to go to war The U.S. military was small; Standing Army was small Militia comprised most of our forces, and they did not like to fight outside of their state borders Navy was quite small only 22 ships Britain was still a great Superpower and easily defeat us We could lose territory that was gained in the Treaty of Paris or from the Louisiana Purchase The War of 1812 What were some drawbacks to going to war?
U.S. Burns York (now Toronto, CA) Why attack Canada? U.S. calculated that the Canadians would join the Americans help defeat Britain …this did not happen Perry Defeated the British on Lake Erie Provided the U.S. control of Lake Erie Britain Blockades the Eastern Seaboard Remember – Britain Navy vs. U.S. Navy…no comparison British Blockade -- prevented shipping from leaving, and made the war more unpopular in the Northeast…Industry!!! The War of 1812
In August 1814, British Forces Sailed into Chesapeake Bay and capture Washington D.C. The British burn the White House and the Capitol Madison and Congress barely escape
The Battle of New Orleans Fought after the treaty was signed (but not ratified) Why was New Orleans important? Pirates and Frontiersman fought alongside US troops Made Andrew Jackson a National hero and household name Ensured treaty ratification The War of 1812
The Battle of Fort McHenry Unlike D.C., Baltimore was Ready for the British The City militia inflicted heavy casualties on the British After bombarding Fort McHenry on September 13, 1814 The British abandon the attack Francis Scott Key witnessed the bombardment and penned a poem "Defense of Fort McHenry," which becomes the National Anthem. The War of 1812
The Demise of the Federalist Party The Constitution was drafted in Philadelphia in 1787, those who favored ratification called themselves "Federalists" TTYN: Who wrote the Federalist Papers? Most of the leading men in the country, including Washington, Madison, Adams, Hamilton and Jefferson, were united in support of the new government. Federalists controlled all branches of the US government for the first three presidential administrations and the programs and ideas of Alexander Hamilton funding the debt, establishing a national bank, promoting commerce and industry, avoiding premature war with England - prevailed.
The Demise of the Federalist Party Divisions began to appear in the early 1790's Madison and Jefferson began to oppose the policies of Hamilton and Washington. Opposition party founded - "Republican Party" (later the "Democratic-Republican Party). 1801, the Republicans won the election and placed Jefferson in the White House. Hamilton killed in 1804…the end is near!
The Demise of the Federalist Party The Hartford Convention of 1814 marks the end of the Federalist Party New England Federalists vented their anger over Jefferson's embargo The Federalist did not propose secession from the union, but did advance the idea that the states could nullify "unconstitutional" acts of Congress After the Battle of New Orleans and the end of the War with England, these positions were exceedingly unpopular. Inconsistent with the longstanding support of Federalists for a strong and energetic national government. Federalists were disgraced which led the end of the party
The “Era of Good Feelings” The War of 1812 closed with the Federalist Party all but destroyed The 1816 presidential election was the last one when the Federalists' ran a candidate. The 1818 Congressional election brought another landslide victory for Democratic- Republicans who controlled 85 percent of the seats in the U.S. Congress. James Monroe elected president (1817 to 1825) ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS - due to its one-party dominance On the horizon - Democratic-Republicans were deeply divided internally and a new political system was about to be created from the old Republican-Federalist competition that had been known as the FIRST PARTY SYSTEM
The “Era of Good Feelings” Democratic-Republicans incorporated major economic policies that had been favored by Federalists since the time of Alexander Hamilton: build an American System of national economic development. Three basic aspects: A national bank Protective tariffs to support American manufactures Federally-funded internal improvements.
The “Era of Good Feelings” The chartering of the Second Bank of the United States in 1816 indicates how much of the old Federalist economic agenda the Democratic-Republicans now supported TTYN: Recalling what we learned about Jeffersonian Democracy, what was Jefferson’s feelings about the National Bank? Democratic-Republicans had come to a new understanding of the need for a strong federal role in creating the basic infrastructure of the nation. The cooperation among national politicians that marked the one-party Era of Good Feelings lasted less than a decade.
The Revival of the two-party system? Old Kinderhook Martin Van Buren played a key role in the development of the Second Party System Embraced public opinion TTYN: What does Van Buren mean with the following quote? "Those who have wrought great changes in the world never succeeded by gaining over chiefs; but always by exciting the multitude.” Rather than follow a model of elite political leadership like that of the Founding Fathers, Van Buren saw "genius" in reaching out to the "multitude" of the general public.
The Revival of the two-party system? Van Buren made careful use of newspapers to spread the word about party positions and to ensure close discipline among party members. The growth of newspapers in the new nation was closely linked to the rise of a competitive party system Newspapers existed as Propaganda vehicles for the political parties that they supported. Newspapers were especially important to the new party system because they spread information about the Party Platform, a carefully crafted list of policy commitments that aimed to appeal to a broad public
The Rise of Mass Democracy Election of 1824: The Corrupt Bargain The Players Involved: John Quincy Adams-Massachusetts Henry Clay-Kentucky William Crawford-Georgia Andrew Jackson- Tennessee “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 William Crawford out Clay hates Jackson Clay supports Adams House Elects Clay Adams appoints Clay as Sec. of State
Jacksonian Democracy Political Power shifts to the West TTYN: Think about the first six presidents – how does Andrew Jackson differ from them in respect to democratic values? Hint! Think about our most recent reading First six: all from the East, men of education, traditional culture, all might have governed the country under an aristocratic constitution Jackson introduced Western ideals…ideals where slavery existed Credited with the introduction or intensification of the “Spoils System”** Destruction of the United States Bank His theory of government is a theory that what is required is not skill, but honesty, and that honesty is proved by membership in the popular party.
The Math and the Breakdown of the Electoral College Jackson 43% Adams 30% No Majority House of Rep selects President Henry Clay holds decisive vote Votes for Adams Game On!!
John Quincy Adams Overview of Adams Presidency Lacks popular support from voters Did not remove workers from the Govt. and replace them with supporters Strong central Govt. view, people turning to states rights Adams wants Govt. to Build roads and canals Supports a national University Indian rights-Cherokee
The Jacksonian Era How did the electorate expand to include the “common man” during the 19th century? To what extent did Andrew Jackson represent the “common man?” In what way(s) did the presidency of Jackson exacerbate tensions in American politics? Be able to give specific examples. How/why was the era following Jackson “disappointing?”
Payback: The Election of 1828 No more Congressional caucuses Conventions and the state legislatures select candidates John Quincy Adams was re-nominated by forces then calling themselves the National Republicans The Democratic Republican (Democrats) call on Jackson The Election Mudslinging and accusations Jackson Wins…and takes office
The Eaton Affair and the Kitchen Cabinet Social Scandal that turned political John Eaton, Jackson’s Secretary of War, married Margaret “Peggy” Timberlake. Washington socialites disapproved of Mrs. Eaton because of her upbringing and rumors about her past. Other cabinet members’ wives refused to associate with Mrs. Eaton forcing Jackson to defend the Eatons. Since John Eaton had defended Rachel Jackson 1828 campaign Would replace approx. 10% of gov’t employees Replaced with many corrupt and incompetent The Spoils System
The Eaton Affair and the Kitchen Cabinet Jackson felt that he must demand that Mrs. Eaton be accepted into Washington’s social circles. Several of Jackson’s cabinet members believed Jackson would serve only one term and were positioning themselves to succeed him as President. The result was that those who socialized with the Eatons and proved their loyalty to Jackson in other areas as well won his favor. However, to rid himself of the immediate controversy Jackson dismissed his entire cabinet in 1831 except for the Postmaster General. In time, this controversy caused Jackson to turn to a group of unofficial advisors that his opponents labeled his “Kitchen Cabinet” because of their “back door” access to the President.
SPOILS SYSTEM Credited with the introduction or intensification of the “Spoils System”** “ To the victor go the spoils”--reward political supporters “Every man is as good as his neighbor-maybe better” “Throw out the old rascals and put in our rascals” Why bother having a bureaucratic office holding class—anyone can do the job. TTYN: What are the advantages and disadvantages of the Spoils system? ** George Washington invented the Spoils System; however, Jackson turned it into an art form. Not qualified New blood Workers are loyal People join and stick with party Criminals given jobs People can “buy” jobs
Tariff of Abominations TTYN: What is a tariff and what economical benefit might it offer? Conversely, what economical detriment may be associated with a tariff? Tariffs are designed to increased the cost of imported goods, and thus protect some of the new industries of the North. What is missing? More importantly, what does the South manufacture? 1824 and 1828 Tariff Who benefits - “Yankee and middle states. Why? Wool and Textile Industries Old south-little manufacturing —no (why) South position - Yankee tariff—”discriminated”
TARIFF OF 1832: The Nullification Crisis TTYN: Describe nullification Jackson must confront a threat to the Union. South Carolina, led by Jackson’s former vice- president, John Calhoun, felt the Tariff of 1832 unduly harmed their state The government levied tariffs to protect northern manufacturers from foreign competitors who offered cheaper goods.
TARIFF OF 1832: The Nullification Crisis Calhoun suggests that the states had the constitutional right to nullify (or invalidate) any federal law and that states could secede from the Union. In late 1832, South Carolina nullified the Tariff of 1832 and threatened secession. Jackson rejected these ideas and promised the use of force if South Carolina disobeyed the law. After much brinksmanship, Congress passed a compromise tariff that placated South Carolina and a bill that authorized the use of force against nullification. Jackson’s actions prevented disunion and set the precedents that Abraham Lincoln would later use to oppose secession. Force Act, Congress approved a bill that authorized the use of military force against any state that resisted the tariff acts.
Trail of Tears The Cherokee of Georgia assimilated Owned land, Became farmers with slaves Constitution based on the American Constitution Devised Cherokee alphabet Legal code Federal govt. recognizes the tribes as separate nations Americans ignore treaties
Trail of Tears “Five Civilized Tribes-Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, Cherokee, and Seminoles Georgia takes control of Cherokee land-1830 Supreme Court says no Jackson says try and enforce decision Move all tribes west of the Mississippi 1830 Indian Removal Act—thousands died in the forced marches New guarantee that the Indian Territory (Oklahoma) would be theirs forever—lasts about 15 years. Indian Removal Act
Jackson’s Attack on the United States Bank Earlier bank: Bank of the United States, created in 1791 Brainchild of Hamilton, opposed by Jefferson, and sanctioned by Washington after some hesitation as to its constitutionality Bank Charter which expired in 1811; not renewed, partly because of three- fourths of its shares were held by foreigners, mainly English Second Bank of U.S. (BUS) created in 1816 Charter due to expire in 1836 Very unpopular Jackson pledged during the campaign appealed for a mandate in his fight against it Supported by the South and West – Western Ideals!
Banking in America Hopeless confusion State banks and private banks (wildcat banks), which usually failed Each issued notes; held no other assets The West - little specie West consisted of either wild-cat notes of notes from State banks Notes lost value as they traveled away from their place of origin BUS was intended to establish a uniform currency throughout the country Most Americans worried about the about the corrupting power of monopolies and feared that the creation of a new class of moneyed capitalist would undermine the moral and political fiber of the republic Land speculation mushroomed Easy credit terms for those who wished to buy lands Financial panic struck in 1819 – The party ends!!!
Banking in America Louisiana Purchase Notes comes due BUS demands specie in exchange for its holding in state bank notes Urban banks collapse Discharged their employees Thousands of borrowers could not pay their loans; lost farms, homes, and businesses The panic revealed the ugly side of the Market Revolution Lawsuits initiated by BUS against state banks and consumers BUS behaved like a private, profit-making lender instead of a public regulator
Group Activity Interpreting Primary Source Documents Document # 1 “Bank Veto” – Andrew Jackson Document # 2 “On the American System” – Henry Clay Class separated into two groups, each analyzing a different document Debate the issues Directions to follow
Group Activity Guiding Questions “Bank Veto” What kinds of changes were occurring in American society that might incline some citizens to agree with Jackson’s charges? What kind of citizens would be likely to rejects his analysis? Regarding the bank – was it appropriate for a democracy to give so much power to private corporations? Are Jackson’s moral, constitutional, and economic arguments sound or far-fetched? “On the American System” What are the main parts of the American System How do they fit together What kind of values does Clay appeal to when argues for the adoption How are they different from Jackson’s How do the two arguments suggest different visions for the country’s future
Resolved - For the United States, Andrew Jackson’s time as President marked a turning point in its history. He strengthened the power of the presidency, defended the Union, gained new respect for the United States in foreign affairs, and pushed the country toward democracy. Tonight’s Homework Develop a thesis either agreeing or disagreeing with this statement Develop an outline for a regents-style essay supporting your conclusion You do not have to write a complete essay Thesis and Outline Only!!! Develop a thesis either agreeing or disagreeing with this statement Develop an outline for a regents-style essay supporting your conclusion You do not have to write a complete essay Thesis and Outline Only!!!
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