Presentation on theme: "Reunited the American people and allowed for westward expansion President Washington sent in the military which quickly stopped the rebellion Willing and."— Presentation transcript:
Reunited the American people and allowed for westward expansion President Washington sent in the military which quickly stopped the rebellion Willing and able to use power strictly reads the constitution. Thomas Jefferson Freely reads the constitution. Alexander Hamilton Bellringer What is a loose constructionist? Give an example What is a strict constructionist? Give an example How does the Whiskey rebellion demonstrate the strength of the US Government under the Constitution? Why was the War of 1812 important?
Early 1800s In the first half of the 1800s the US grew in size and population in accordance with Manifest Destiny. The North, with natural resources, began industrializing. The South focused on Cotton and slavery became rooted in the Southern economy and tradition.
Market Revolution As industry developed in the North, the nation needed to develop new ways of transporting goods and resources. The Erie Canal and Railroads helped connect the nation like never before. These improvements made shipping from the Midwest to the Atlantic ports much cheaper and quicker.
Erie Canal and Railroads The Erie Canal connected the Atlantic Ocean through the Great Lakes to the Midwest. By 1840 the US had more railroads than any other nation in the world As transportation increased the United States was able to expand West
Factories Manufacturing shifted from homes to large factories and workers at machines. The first mills were in Lowell, Massachusetts. These were the model and employed white, teenage farm girls. This provided independence for the girls. Working conditions deteriorated quickly as profit won out over worker rights: -12 hour days/ 6 days a week -low wages -child laborers -safety violations
Immigration Millions of immigrants from Europe, especially the Irish and Germans, came to the American North for jobs in the industrial factories. Millions of Irish fled to the US to avoid starvation during the Irish Potato Famine between 1845 and 1850.
“Know-Nothings” The number of immigrants created hostility from the Americans, mostly out of fear of economic competition in the workplace. Nativism grew so strong that the Know- nothing party was formed. This party pushed for legislation to restrict immigration and did best in the north. Know-Nothings- Political Party that pushed for anti- immigration laws
Southern Development While the North focused on industry, the South remained agricultural. Its wealth was in land and slaves, and the economy was dependent on cotton grown by slaves. Few immigrants settled in the south, so the population slowly grew. Cotton as a cash crop took off in 1793 after Eli Whitney’s Cotton gin, which helped slaves process
South and North Economic dependence As the cotton industry grew with the Cotton Gin, the South produced millions of cotton bales every year. The North eagerly purchased this cotton as a resource in the Textile factories in the New England. The South produced the Cotton, the North turned it into manufactured goods, and the South purchased these goods.
Results of the War of 1812 The war reinforced the idea of neutrality and American Nationalism Native American tribes lost their British Allies, allowing the Americans easier expansion to the West. American manufacturing grew when the US was cut off from European imports. “The Star Spangled Banner” was inspired by the bombing of Fort McHenry The Treaty of Ghent restored the boundaries of the US and Canada. 7:15
Post 1812 Foreign Policy American Nationalism allowed for the expansion of the United States. Soon, John Quincy Adams, the secretary of State under James Monroe, had acquired Florida from Spain (1819). He also heavily influenced the passage of the Monroe Doctrine, the policy of the Unites States in the Western Hemisphere.
Monroe Doctrine In 1823 Congress passed the Monroe Doctrine which set the US policy in the Western Hemisphere. The doctrine warned Europe to stay out of Western affairs: -No more European Colonies -No European Intervention in the nations in the Western Hemisphere -We promise no interference in Europe’s affairs.
Importance of the Monroe Doctrine 1)Geography- Atlantic Ocean separated Europe and America and let us focus on domestic affairs 2)National Interests- United States can now influence Latin American nations 3)Non-interference- The Europeans promised to not interfere in the Western Hemisphere as long as the Americans promised not to become involved in their affairs. Though we did not have the military strength to make good on the promise, Britain agreed to the terms and agreed to back the US should a foreign nation ignore the Monroe Doctrine. The Western Hemisphere is claimed by the US. This means North America and all of Latin America. This is the end of Neutral/Isolated America.
The Age of Jackson Andrew Jackson was a member of the new Democratic party, and was heavily opposed by the Whig Party. In the 1824 election, Jackson won the popular vote, but failed to win a majority of electoral votes. However, in 1828 Jackson won both the electoral and popular vote. WhigsDemocrats Strong Federal Government Government should maintain infrastructure Favored national bank Federal Government should be inactive States should maintain infrastructure Against National Bank
Jacksonian Democracy Andrew Jackson is known for losing to John Quincy Adams despite winning the popular vote. During his presidency Jackson stretched the lines of democracy: -Spoils System -Tariff of Abominations -S.C. Ordinance of Nullification -The Force Bill -The Bank War -Worchester v. Georgia -Indian Removal and the Trail of Tears
Gibbons v Ogden In 1824, the Marshall court further expanded the power of the National Government to regulate trade. Case brief: -NYS gave Ogden exclusive rights to operate a steamboat along the Hudson river between NYC and New Jersey -Gibbons also operated along that route and appealed the exclusive rights. NYS threw out Gibbons case -Gibbons appealed to the Supreme Court who said it was illegal for NYS to give an exclusive license to Ogden.
Spoils System Andrew Jackson gave government jobs to people who had worked to help their political party win the election. The Spoils system lasted until 1881, when a disgruntled who failed to get a government job killed President James Garfield, when the Civil Service reform started.
Tariff of Abominations In 1828 a tariff was passed to discourage foreign imports and encourage American manufacturing. The tariff helped the industrial North, but forced the Southerners to pay higher prices for manufactured goods. The Southerners called this the Tariff of Abominations and eventually passed legislation to Nullify the act.
S.C. Ordinance of Nullification South Carolina, angry at the tariff, declared that states had the right to nullify, or cancel any laws they judged unconstitutional. When Jackson passed another tariff South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union. Secede- Formally withdraw from the Union or group
The Force Bill President Jackson believed South Carolina’s Nullification act defied the Will of the People. At his urging, Congress passed the Force Bill, requiring South Carolina to collect the tariff. Eventually Senator Henry Clay created a compromise. Congress reduced the tariffs and South Carolina paid them.
The Bank War Jackson believed the National Bank was a ‘monster’ controlled by wealthy easterners. The Bank’s charter was coming to an end, and Jackson vetoed the re-charter claiming the Bank just made the rich richer. His opponents used this veto to claim Jackson was taking too much power into his own hands.
Indian Removal As the Southern Cotton boom continued, wealthy planters wished to buy more land. Eventually, the only land left was the Native American lands. The Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole people lived on 100 million acres of fertile land. These Native Americans were called the “civilized tribes” and practiced farming. Georgia, Alabama and Mississippi began taking Indian lands, breaking federal treaties with the Natives. In 1830 the Indian Removal Act authorized Congress to take Indian land in the East and give them land in the Louisiana Territory. For the 100 million acres taken in the East, the Indians received only 32 million in present day Oklahoma.
Worchester v Georgia The Five Civilized tribes sued, claiming their land was being stolen unjustly. The Supreme Court, led by chief Justice John Marshall, side with Worchester (the Natives). However, President Jackson and the states ignored the ruling, and proceeded to relocate the Native Americans to Oklahoma. Unfortunately the Supreme Court could not enforce this decision.
Trail of Tears In 1838 the US Army rounded up 15,000 Cherokees into camps. Others burned the Cherokee homes and farms. The Cherokee were then forcibly marched for 116 days to the west. The move took place in the fall and winter, causing nearly 1 of every 4 Cherokees to die of cold and disease. After the move, the government had promised the Natives $9 million. However, the US subtracted the $6 million spent to relocate the Natives.
King Andrew Some people thought President Jackson’s actions limited democracy as he established himself as the supreme leader of the land. 8:28
Review During the presidency of Andrew Jackson, the spoils system resulted in 1.Elected officials rewarding their supporters with government jobs 2.Federal laws being nullified by the states 3.All free males being given the right to vote 4.The end of political corruption in the federal government
Review Which Supreme Court decision is most closely associated with the Trail of Tears? 1.McCulloch v Maryland (1819) 2.Gibbons v Ogden (1824) 3.Worcester v Georgia (1832) 4.Dred Scott v Sanford (1857)
Review The Monroe Doctrine (1823) was issued primarily because President James Monroe 1.Wanted to warn European powers against intervention in Latin America 2.Opposed the revolutions taking place in South America 3.Needed to establish a foothold in Panama for a future canal 4.Believed the United States should pursue overseas colonies
Review The completion of the Erie Canal in the early 19 th century aided the economic development of the United States by 1.Supplying water for the irrigation of western farms 2.Providing a shipping route for cotton from the South to Europe 3.Lowering the cost of shipping goods from the Midwest to the Atlantic Coast 4.Supplying waterpower for running factories and mills