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Era of Good Feelings and Andrew Jackson. Themes Missouri Comprise Monroe Doctrine Rise of Andrew Jackson.

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Presentation on theme: "Era of Good Feelings and Andrew Jackson. Themes Missouri Comprise Monroe Doctrine Rise of Andrew Jackson."— Presentation transcript:

1 Era of Good Feelings and Andrew Jackson

2 Themes Missouri Comprise Monroe Doctrine Rise of Andrew Jackson

3 Era of Good Feelings (1817-1825) Name given to the era of James Monroe’s Presidency James Monroe presidential years (1817-1825) Era did not involve fighting between rival political parties but over representation The majority of Americans supported Monroe’s electoral victory

4 Missouri Crisis In 1819, Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state The balance between the 11 free states and 11 slave states would be broken Proposal: Gradually emancipate slaves in Missouri North states: agreed South states: disagreed

5 The Missouri Compromise (1820-1821)

6 Spain and Florida General Andrew Jackson led U.S. forces into Florida He occupied two Spanish forts and had two British citizens hanged Led to the Adams/Onis Treaty 1819 - Spain ceded Florida to United States - Americans renounced claims to Texas - Spain gave up claims to Oregon

7 North vs. South A compromise was needed to resolve the crisis Who: Henry Clay (Speakers of the House of Representatives)

8 The Missouri Compromise (1820-1821) Missouri entered the Union as a slave states Maine entered the Union as a free state In future, slavery was prohibited in the Louisiana Purchase Territory north of 36,30 The Mason-Dixon line was now separating the free and slave states in the Union -Surveyed in 1763 by Charles Mason and Jeremiah Dixon which led to form the borders of Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, and West Virginia The Line would later be used as a border between slave and free states during the Civil War

9 The Missouri Compromise (Results) Many believed South “won” this conflict There was agreement, however, that Congress had the power to limit slavery in some territories Importance: Foreshadowed future conflicts between North and South

10 John Q. Adams (Secretary of State) John Q. Adams served as Monroe’s Secretary of State -Oregon Territory British and Americans both claimed territory Each agreed to joint occupation of the region - Monroe Doctrine

11 Spanish Independence Spanish colonies gained independence in early 19 th Century Will foreign countries recognize them or try to conquer them? France, English, Russia British proposed a joint declaration: Each would oppose interference with new nations and agree not to establish new colonies in the Americas *This proposal would halt American expansion in the west*

12 Years of Independence

13 Monroe Doctrine of 1823 Has James Monroe’s name but was written by John Q. Adams 1.European powers cannot interfere with independent nations in the western hemisphere 2.New European colonization in western hemisphere was prohibited 3.In return, the United States pledged to stay out of European affairs *Protecting newly created Spanish nations and stopping Russian influence in Oregon*

14 Significance of Monroe Doctrine This was the foundation of U.S. foreign policy European powers were no longer welcomed in North America

15 Presidential Election of 1824 (Candidates) Andrew Jackson (Tennessee): Hero of New Orleans John Q. Adams (Massachusetts): Secretary of State William Crawford (Georgia): Treasury Secretary Henry Clay (Kentucky): Speaker of the House of Representatives

16 Presidential Election of 1824 Election of 1824 – 131 to win Popular Vote: -Andrew Jackson – 43.1% -John Q. Adams – 30.5 % -William Crawford – 13.1% -Henry Clay – 13.2% Electoral Vote: -Andrew Jackson – 99 -John Q. Adams – 84 -William Crawford – 41 -Henry Clay - 37

17 Presidential Election of 1824 If no candidate wins the majority of electoral votes – The House of Representatives chooses the next President among the top three finishers Finalists – Andrew Jackson & John Adams Clay (still Speaker of the House) helped Adams win presidency Adams picked Clay to be Secretary of State Corruption

18 John Q. Adams Presidency (1825-1829) Rumors of corruption hurt Adams Experience: Diplomat, Senator, Secretary of State Proposals for internal improvement (Ex. 2 nd Bank of America); funding for the arts met fierce opposition Like his father, John Q. Adams was destined to serve only one term

19 Election of 1828 Jackson and his supporters were called Democrats (Southern Jefferson supporters) Accusation: -Adams = gambler and promoted prostitution -Jackson = illiterate and married an adulterer Andrew Jackson won the presidency; ending the “Era of Good Feelings”

20 Jackson and Democracy Elimination of property qualifications to vote Jackson Heroism: Was a hero during the Battle of New Orleans and had a well known hatred for Native Americans Jackson supported the will of the American people to govern: - voters should directly elect President and Senators *We still have electoral college today, but we NOW directly elect our Senators*

21 Tariff of Abominations Congress passed a protective tariff in 1828 It was very unpopular in the South: -Raised the cost of manufactured items -Other nations established tariffs hurting American exports This hurt the South because they exported many of their goods to Europe

22 South Carolina Exposition and Protest (1828) Response to Tariff of Abominations: -Tariff violated the Constitution -States had the right to nullify such laws The author: Andrew Jackson’s Vice President, John C. Calhoun *This ideology was directly based off of the Virginia and Kentucky Resolution in 1789

23 Nullification Crisis President Jackson did not approve of the tariffs but rejected the concept of nullification Jackson and Calhoun are now torn apart on major issues Calhoun resigned as Vice President *A compromise was needed*

24 Compromise Solution A new tariff (passed in 1833) gradually lowered tariff rates Force Bill: Allowed President to use force to collect tariff revenues Henry Clay – Great Compromiser

25 Bank Crisis Jackson distrusted and had a hatred for the Bank of the United States He, and others, believed its policies had influenced the Panic of 1819 Jackson vetoed the bank’s renewal in 1832: -It was unconstitutional - It was harmful to the nation - Bank only served the interest of wealthy elites

26 Bank Crisis Andrew Jackson defeated Henry Clay and was re-elected in 1832 Federal money was withdrawn from Bank of the United States and placed into “pet banks” in the states Would lead to the “death” of the Bank of the United States in 1836

27 Jackson’s Opponents Whigs: Name given to political party opposed to Jackson Labeled Andrew Jackson – King Andrew I Second American party system evolved - Democratic Party - Whigs

28 Limits to Jacksonian Democracy Jackson was a slave holder There were over 100 slaves on his plantation in Tennessee While Andrew Jackson repeatedly stated supported rights for all. All meaning “whites” males He did not support equality for women Indian Removal Act of 1830

29 Indian Removal The Cherokee were told to assimilate into U.S. society - They adopted a written constitution that they wrote However, once gold was found on their land in Georgia, the state government forced their power on them

30 Indian Removal (Supreme Court) Chief Justice John Marshall - Cherokee should not be forced to move Jackson ignored the ruling; enforced the Indian Removal Act Minor Cherokee leaders agreed to give up land for money

31 Cherokee Trail of Tears (1838) 15,000- 18,000 were forced to move 25% died along the way

32 Martin Van Buren Won the election of 1836 Van Buren, Jackson’s Vice President, was seen as Jackson’s puppet Took office in 1837 and was greeted by the Panic of 1837

33 Panic of 1837 Resulted from: - Bad harvests in Europe caused English Banks to call in loans it had given to the U.S. - Cotton prices went down - Everyone rushed to the banks to withdraw all their money before it was too late Whigs accuse Jackson’s anti-bank policies for the fall of the economy

34 Panic of 1839 After the Panic of 1837 was resolved another took place in 1839 Banks again were failing along with the economy and businesses This would eventually lead to the lose of Van Buren’s second term and the end of the Age of Jackson

35 Election of 1840 Whig leader William Henry Harrison would beat Martin Van Buren for the presidency Harrison’s inauguration speech took hours and hours to finish in the rain Because of this Harrison developed pneumonia and died soon after 1 st President of U.S. to die in office John Tyler, Harrison’s Vice President, will now serve as president from 1841-1845

36 Review Missouri Crisis and Monroe Doctrine were important events during this era Describe the accomplishments and limitations of Andrew Jackson’s Presidency. Overall, how would you evaluate his years in office?

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