Presentation on theme: "THE RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY Chapter 13. Introduction In 1828 an energetic new party, the Democrats, captured the White House. By the 1830s the Democrats."— Presentation transcript:
THE RISE OF MASS DEMOCRACY Chapter 13
Introduction In 1828 an energetic new party, the Democrats, captured the White House. By the 1830s the Democrats faced an equally vigorous opposition party, the Whigs. This two-party system institutionalized divisions that had vexed the Revolutionary generation and came to constitute an important part of the nation’s checks and balances on political power.
Introduction New forms of politicking emerged as candidates used banners, badges, parades, barbecues, free drinks, and baby kissing to “get out the vote”. Only ¼ of those eligible to vote in 1824 turned out, but that number doubled in 1828 (reaching 78% in 1840)
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 The last of the old style elections was marked by the controversial corrupt bargain of Monroe, the last of the Virginia Dynasty, was completing his second term.
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 4 Candidates emerged; John Q. Adams of MA Henry Clay of KY William H. Crawford of GA Andrew Jackson of TN
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 Jackson, the war hero, had the most personal appeal, especially in the West, where he campaigned against government corruption and privilege. Jackson polled more popular votes that his next two rivals combined, but he did not win the majority of electoral votes.
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 Because of this deadlock, the House (as advised by the 12 th Amendment) had to choose among the top 3 candidates. Clay was eliminated, but as Speaker of the House, he had to preside over the very chamber that had to pick the winner. This put Clay in a position to throw the election to the candidate of his choice.
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 Clay; Thought Crawford was too old (just had a stroke and was suffering paralysis) Hated Jackson (publicly denounced Jackson’s conquering of Florida) Although not having much in common with Adams personally, had much in common with him politically.
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 Early in 1825 it was announced that Adams was the new President and that Henry Clay would become the Secretary of State. This decision angered Jackson because in those days, the path to the White House often (3 out of 4 times) ran through the office of Secretary of State.
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 Jackson alleged that Adams had bribed Clay to make him president with promises of making Clay Sec. of State and making Adams, the 2 nd choice, President over Jackson, the 1 st choice. The masses, mostly backing Jackson, were in an uproar as many people spoke out against Henry Clay.
The “Corrupt Bargain” of 1824 No evidence has ever been given that Adams and Clay entered in to a formal bargain. Clay was the natural choice and Adams was known to be very honest. The outcry showed that change was in the wind and no president from here on out (until maybe 2000) would be decided behind closed doors.
A Yankee Misfit in the White House John Q. Adams ranks as one of the most successful secretaries of state, but one of the least successful president in history. The first “minority” president, Adams won despite only earning 1/3 of the popular vote. It was clear that Adams was uncomfortable in this dawning era of baby-kissing and backslapping.
A Yankee Misfit in the White House Adams only removed 12 public servants from the payroll during his time in office. Unlike most presidents, Adams refused to replace efficient officeholders in order to create jobs for his supporters. This obviously did not win him new supporters.
July 4 th 1826 John Adams dies on July 4 th 1826 while his son is President. His chief political rival, Thomas Jefferson also dies on July 4 th Jefferson said he wanted to die on July 4 th.
Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828 Jackson started campaigning for the Presidential election of 1828 in 1825 after John Adams was controversially elected. By 1828, the temporarily united Republicans were split into two camps; National Republicans (Adams) and Democratic Republicans (Jackson).
Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828 Though Jackson was seen publically as a rough and tumble farmer, he was, in fact, a wealthy planter who lived in a luxurious mansion with many slaves. The 1828 campaign was one of the first examples of political mudslinging and it was ugly on both sides.
Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828 A story came out about Andrew and his wife Rachel. Before she met Andrew, she was married to a man named Robards (who was paranoid about her “loose” ways). Rachel got a divorce, that she assumed was finalized when she married Andrew.
Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828 Robards finds out and seeks the “final actualization” of the divorce. Obviously, the National Republicans had a field day with this. The Democrats made up a story that Adams got an Americans girl in Moscow to perform sexual favors for the Czar of Russia.
Going “Whole Hog” for Jackson in 1828 Voter turnout was doubled among eligible voters and it continued to increase during the 1800s. Andrew Jackson sweeps to victory in 1828, defeating Adams easily. Jackson takes over in March of 1829.
“Old Hickory” as President Jackson was the first president from the West and the first nominated at a formal party convention (1832 election). The was only the 2 nd without a college education (Washington being first). Essentially he was a frontier aristocrat who owned many slaves, cultivated broad acres, and lived in one of the finest mansions in America.
“Old Hickory” as President Jackson was the first to introduce the spoils system- rewarding political supporters with public office. At the time, Washington was due for a housecleaning since there was no party turnover since the 1800 election. It did have its problems as illiterates, crooks, and incompetents bought positions of public trust.
The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” Jackson inherited Adams’s headache when it came to tariffs. Protective tariffs helped American business, but it also allowed them to increase prices as well as invite tariffs on American goods overseas. In 1824 Jacksonites promoted a high tariff bill, expecting it to be defeated so they could blame Adams.
The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” To their surprise, the tariff passed and in 1828, Jackson inherited the political hot potato. Southerners were hostile to the tariffs (they consumed manufactured goods, but didn’t produce much). They branded the Tariff of 1828 the “Black Tariff” or the “ Tariff of Abominations”
The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” So, why were the Southerners so mad? The northeast was bustling because of the protective tariffs. The West was prospering from high rising property values and multiplying population. The Southwest was expanding onto cotton lands. The Old South was falling on hard times.
The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” Southerners felt it wrong that they had to pay high prices of manufactured goods, but had no tariffs to protect the cotton and farm goods that they sold. Deeper than that was the growing anxiety about possible federal interference with the institution of slavery.
The Tricky “Tariff of Abominations” John C. Calhoun (VP under Jackson) went as far as to write a pamphlet (The South Carolina Exposition) calling the Tariff unjust and unconstitutional (he had to conceal his authorship as VP). The Exposition bluntly and explicitly proposed that the states should nullify the tariff.
“Nullies” in South Carolina For Jackson’s first term the nullifiers- “nullies” tried to muster the necessary 2/3 vote in the S.C. legislature. As they were blocked, Congress tipped the balance by passing the Tariff of 1832, that still fell short of Southern demands.
“Nullies” in South Carolina In the state elections of 1832, the “nullies” wore palmetto ribbons on their hats to mark their loyalty to the “Palmetto State” and emerged with more than 2/3 majority. Several weeks later, the delegates solemnly declared the Tariff null and void in S.C. Further, the convention threatened to take S.C. out of the union if Washington attempted to collect customs duties by force.
“Nullies” in South Carolina Jackson issued a ringing proclamation against nullification and quietly dispatched naval and military reinforcements to S.C. He was not a hardened supporter of the tariff, but he was not going to stand for any defiance or disunion on his watch. If civil war was to be avoided, one side would have to back surrender, or both would have to compromise.
“Nullies” in South Carolina Although he was a foe of Jackson, Henry Clay stepped up (he didn’t want to see Jackson get anymore good publicity) and proposed a new plan that would reduce the Tariff of 1832 by about 10% over a period of 8 years. The compromise Tariff of 1833 squeezed through Congress, which angered the New England and middle states.
“Nullies” in South Carolina Also passed was the Force Bill (known in the Carolinas as the Bloody Bill) which allowed the president to use the army and navy, if necessary, to collect federal tariff duties. S.C. did not lose face, but they were upset that no other southern states had sprung to their support (VA and GA thought about it).
“Nullies” in South Carolina Clay was hailed in Boston and Charleston alike for saving the country. Armed conflict had been avoided, but fundamental issues had not been resolved.
The Trail of Tears More than 125,000 Native Americans lived in the forests and prairies east of the Mississippi in the 1820s. Many white Americans felt respect and admiration for the Indians and believed that they could be assimilated into the white society. Much energy was put into “civilizing” and Christianizing the Indians.
The Trail of Tears In 1793 Congress appropriated $20,000 for the promotion of literacy and agricultural vocational instruction among the Indians. The Cherokees of Georgia made especially remarkable efforts to learn the ways of the whites. The gradually abandoned their seminomadic lives and adopted a system of settled agriculture as well as opening schools.
The Trail of Tears In 1828 the Georgia legislature declared the Cherokee tribal council illegal and asserted its own jurisdiction over Indian affairs and Indian lands. The Cherokees appealed to the Supreme Court which thrice held up the rights of the Indians. Pres. Jackson refused to recognize the Court’s decision.
The Trail of Tears Jackson proposed to send the remaining eastern tribes- Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles- beyond the Mississippi. Emigration was supposed to be voluntary as Jackson consoled himself with the idea that they would just pick up and settle their native culture in the wide-open west.
The Trail of Tears Jackson’s policy led to the forced uprooting of more than 100,000 Indians. In 1830 Congress passed the Indian Removal Act, providing for the transplanting of all Indian tribes then resident east of the Mississippi. Countless Indians died on forced marches- most notably the Cherokees along the Trail of Tears- to the newly established Indian Territory.
The Trail of Tears On this land they were to be free of white encroachments “permanently”. The land-hungry “palefaces” pushed farther west faster than anticipated and the “permanent” frontier lasted about 15 years. Natives from Illinois and Wisconsin were bloodily crushed in the Black Hawk War of 1832 by regular troops.
The Trail of Tears Leaders of the regular army included Lieutenant Jefferson Davis and Captain Abraham Lincoln of Illinois. In FL the Seminoles joined runaway black slaves into the Everglades where they waged bitter guerilla war over 7 years. They were finally defeated when their leader, Osceola was captured.
The Bank War President Jackson did not hate all banks and all businesses, but he distrusted monopolistic banking and overly big businesses. What made the national bank a monster in Jackson’s eyes? The national government minted gold and silver coins, but paper notes were printed by private banks and value fluctuated w/ the health of the banks.
The Bank War Also, the amount of money printed fluctuated, which gave private bankers considerable power over the nation’s economy. No bank in America had as much power as the Bank of the U.S.. The Bank acted as a branch of government, as it was the principal depository for the funds of the Washington government.
The Bank War Its notes, unlike those of many smaller banks were stable in value. The Bank was privately owned so it was accountable to its investors, not the people. Its president, Nicholas Biddle, held an immense- and to many unconstitutional- amount of power over the nation’s financial affairs.
The Bank War The Bank War erupted in 1832, when Daniel Webster and Henry Clay presented Congress with a bill to renew the Bank’s charter. Clay, as chief rival to Jackson in the election of 1832 and he thought pushing for charter renewal would give him an edge in the election.
The Bank War He wanted to leave the decision to sign or not sign to Jackson; not to sign would give Clay an edge in the election and signing it would alienate Jackson’s followers in the West. After sliding through Congress, Jackson vehemently vetoed the charter, declaring the monopolistic bank unconstitutional. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) declared it constitutional, but Jackson considered the executive branch superior to the judicial branch.
“Old Hickory” Wallops Clay in 1832 For the 1 st time, a 3 rd party entered the field- the Anti-Masonic party- which opposed the influence and fearsome secrecy of the Masonic order. They were influenced by the disappearance and probably murder in 1826 of a New Yorker who was threatening to expose the secrets of the Masons.
“Old Hickory” Wallops Clay in 1832 Their political force spread quickly through NY and into the middle Atlantic and New England states. Since Jackson was a Mason, the Anti-Masonic party was partly an anti-Jackson party, but also attracted evangelical Protestant groups seeking to use political power to effect moral and religious reforms.
“Old Hickory” Wallops Clay in 1832 2 new things from election of 1832; National nominating conventions Adoption of formal platforms, publicizing their positions on the issues Even though Clay had more money backing him, Jackson easily defeated Clay taking 219 electoral votes to Clay’s 49
Burying Biddle’s Bank Jackson was not content with allowing the Bank’s charter to simply expire in He was concerned that Biddle would manipulate the bank so as to force it recharter. In 1833 Jackson set in motion a plan to stop making government deposits to Biddle and then slowly siphon the reserves to bleed the bank dry.
Burying Biddle’s Bank Biddle tried to show the importance of the ban by producing a minor financial crisis. The death of the Bank left a financial vacuum in the American economy and kicked off a cycle of booms and busts. Surplus funds were placed in so-called pet banks, chosen for their pro-Jackson sympathies.
Burying Biddle’s Bank These pet banks flooded the country with paper money and Jackson authorized the Treasury to issue a Specie Circular- all public lands to be purchased with “hard”, or metallic, money. This slammed the brakes on the speculative boom, which contributed to a financial panic and crash in By that time, Jackson was long since retired.
The Birth of the Whigs As early as 1828, the Democratic-Republicans had adopted the once-tainted name “Democrats”. Jackson’s opponents began to coalesce as the Whigs- a name deliberately chosen to recollect 18 th century British and Revolutionary American opposition to the monarchy of “King Andrew I”.
The Birth of the Whigs The Whigs first emerged as an identifiable group in the Senate, where Clay, Webster, and Calhoun joined forces in 1834 to pass a motion censuring Jackson for his single-handed removal of federal deposits.
The Birth of the Whigs The Whigs attracted: supporters of Clay’s American System, southern states’ righters, larger northern industrialists and merchants, and evangelical Protestants associated with the Anti- Masonic party The Whigs, though conservative, were progressive in that they favored internal improvement (roads, canals, railroads, telegraph lines, asylums, prisons, and public schools) over western expansion.
The Election of 1836 Jackson, nearing 70, rigged the nominating convention to nominate his VP Martin Van Buren, although most Democrats were not too excited about him. The Whigs tried to run several “favorite sons” with regional appeal so that they didn’t have to nominate just one candidate.
The Election of 1836 They were hoping to create a logjam that would throw the deadlocked election to the House of Representatives, where the Whigs might have a chance to win. Van Buren defeated William Henry Harrison of Ohio and hero of the Battle of Tippecanoe 170 electoral votes to 124.
Big Woes for the “Little Magician” Martin Van Buren was the first to be born under the American flag. The myth of his mediocrity sprouted mostly from a series of misfortunes over which he had no control.
Big Woes for the “Little Magician” H e incurred the resentment of many Democrats as well as the many enemies of Jackson. Worst of all, Jackson bequeathed to Van Buren the makings of a nearing depression.
Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury The panic of 1837 was a symptom of rampant western land speculation and the shaky currency of the “wildcat banks”. Grain prices rose so high that mobs in NYC stormed warehouses and broke open barrels.
Depression Doldrums and the Independent Treasury The collapse of 2 banks in England forced British investors to call in foreign loans. Americans banks collapsed by the hundreds, including some “pet banks”, which carried down with them several million in government funds.
Gone to Texas In 1823 Stephen Austin was granted a huge tract of land in Texas by Mexico under the agreement that 300 American families would settle and become Mexicanized. The Americans resented this Mexicanization and remained American at heart. By 1835, there were more than 35,000 Texan Americans (including Davy Crockett, Jim Bowie and ex-TN Governor Sam Houston).
Gone to Texas Houston’s new bride (of only a few weeks) left him and took up residence with a group of Arkansas Indians who referred to Houston as “Big Drunk”. Also, the issue of slavery created a disturbance between the Mexicans and the Texans. Mexico emancipated slaves in 1830, but the Texans kept their slaves in bondage.
Gone to Texas Stephen Austin went to the Mexican government to try and air out the grievances, the dictator Santa Anna threw him in jail for 8 months. In 1835, Santa Anna wiped out all local rights and raised an army to suppress the upstart Texans.
The Lone Star Rebellion In early 1836 the Texans declared their independence and named Sam Houston commander in chief. Santa Anna, with the aid of 6,000 men swept into Texas and laid siege to the Alamo in San Antonio for 13 days against 200 Texans. 400 Mexican soldiers surrounded the volunteers who were unarmed and butchered them.
The Lone Star Rebellion Slain heroes like Jim Bowie and Davy Crockett, well-known in life, became legendary in death. Texan war cries- “Remember the Alamo!” “Remember Goliad!” and “Death to Santa Anna!” swept into the U.S. as scores of vengeful Americans grabbed rifles and came to the aid of their relatives, friends, and compatriots.
The Lone Star Rebellion Gen. Sam Houston lured Santa Anna to San Jacinto (just outside present day Houston) and defeated his army on April 21, 1836 while they were on a siesta. Santa Anna was found cowering in tall grass near the battlefield and was forced to sign two treaties.
The Lone Star Rebellion He was forced to withdraw Mexican troops and to recognize the Rio Grande as the extreme southwestern boundary of Texas. When release he said the treaties were void because he was forced to sign under duress. Many people wanted Texas to become part of the U.S., but slavery presented a tough issue.
The Lone Star Rebellion Most Texan settlers came from the south and southwest, which were slave holding states. The fact remained that many Texans were slaveholders and admitting Texas to the Union inescapably meant enlarging American slavery.
Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 Van Buren was renominated by the Democrats in 1840 without much enthusiasm (called “Martin Van Ruin” by the Whigs). The Whigs threw their support behind Ohioan William Henry Harrison, instead of the regional tactic of “Old Tippecanoe” was nominated because he was issueless and enemyless.
Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 John Tyler of VA was selected as his vice- president. The Whigs campaigned on no official platform as they were hoping to just slide Harrison into office. A Democrat editor played into their hands when he claimed that Harrison was an impoverished old farmer who should be content with a pension, a log cabin, and a barrel of hard cider.
Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 Harrisonites portrayed their hero as the poor “Farmer from North Bend” who had been called from his cabin and plow to drive corrupt Jackson spoilsmen from the “presidential palace.” The Whig campaign was a masterpiece of inane hoopla. Whigs rolled huge inflated balls from village to village and state to state.
Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 These balls represented the snowballing majority for “Tippecanoe and Tyler too.” Harrison was a member of one of the First Families of Virginia, lived in a 16 room mansion on a 3,000 acre farm, and drank whiskey, not hard cider (poor man’s champagne).
Log Cabins and Hard Cider of 1840 Harrison won by a surprisingly close margin on the popular vote, but won an overwhelming margin on the electoral side (234 to 60). Whigs sought to expand and stimulate the economy, while Democrats favored retrenchment and an end to high-flying banks and aggressive corporations.
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The Two-Party System 2 things happened during the election of 1840; The triumph of a populist democratic style. The formation of a vigorous and durable two-party system. The idea had prevailed that parties of any sort smacked of conspiracy and “faction” and were injurious to the health of the body politic in a republic.
The Two-Party System Jacksonian Democrats glorified the liberty of the individual and were fiercely on guard against the inroads of “privilege” into government. Whigs trumpeted the natural harmony of society and the value of community. Whigs also berated leaders whose appeals to self-interest fostered conflict among individuals, classes, or sections.