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Chapter 13 The Rise of Mass "Jacksonian" Democracy

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1 Chapter 13 The Rise of Mass "Jacksonian" Democracy

2 Politics shift in the 1820s:
"Jeffersonian Democracy" where the people were governed as little as possible "Jacksonian" Democracy" takes it one step further a. whatever governing was to be done should be done DIRECTLY by the people b. universal white manhood suffrage began to replace property requirements (VT was the 1st)

3 Voter turnout rose w/ new style of politicking:
a. banners b. badges c. parades d. barbecues e. free drinks f. baby kissing

4 Everywhere people began to flex their political muscles
a. members of the Electoral College were being chosen directly by the people rather than by state legislatures b. desire of the people to nominate their own presidential candidates rather than by congressional caucus

5 Election of 1824 Andrew Jackson TN "Old Hero of New Orleans"
Henry Clay KY "Harry of the West" William Crawford GA chosen by congressional caucus John Quincy Adams MA son of ex-Pres.

6 Jackson won the popular vote but failed to win the majority of electoral votes so based upon the 12th Amendment the election went to the House of Rep. to choose b/w top three candidates. Clay eliminated (last) but he was the powerful Speaker of the House: a. Crawford - had a stroke - eliminated b. Jackson - hated by Clay as his arch rival for "King of the West" c. Adams - no real association

7 Clay met privately w/ Adams and gave Adams his support
Clay met privately w/ Adams and gave Adams his support. House held its vote and Adams won. Adams then nominated Clay as Sec. of State. Public outcry - private meeting seen as a bribe. Public wanted Jackson as Sec of State and Jackson supporters cried a "corrupt bargain" had taken place. Impact: JQA becomes 1st minority president (only 1/3 voted for him)

8 John Quincy Adams' Administration:
Not popular "Old Nationalist" a. roads/canals b. idea of nat'l university c. wanted fed. $ for astronomical observatory d. cut back on speculation of W lands e. supporter of Cherokee nation's rt to land in GA f. maintained competent gov't workers

9 Opposition: waste of $ for observatory
to fund projects - continue w/ tariff (hated in the S) resisted fed. in state matters: 1. Cherokee - GA wanted them removed to make room for whites (ex. of nullification) 2. Education - state decided curriculum 3. Transportation - state decided projects 4. Slavery - basis of Southern state economies

10 Tariff of 1828 passed at the very end of JQA's administration (see below) another protective tariff

11 Election of 1828 National Republicans John Quincy Adams
Support from N and NE Democratic Republicans Andrew Jackson Support from S and W Campaign Is riddled with mudslinging both personal and political Results: Jackson wins by landslide 173 to 83.

12 Jackson’s Life Born Mar. 15, 1767, on the border of North Carolina and South Carolina, Jackson was orphaned at the age of 14. After reading law and gaining admission to the bar in North Carolina, he migrated to Nashville, Tenn., where he allied himself with a powerful political faction. In 1791, Jackson married Rachel; both he and Rachel mistakenly believed that she and her first husband had received a legal divorce. When they discovered their error, they remarried (1794).


14 Jackson's Administration
1. Tariff of "Tariff of Abomination" or "Black Tariff" South continued to see the Tariff of Abominations as a. threat to slavery b. interference of the federal gov't to southern states. c. SC Exposition (written by Calhoun) denounces the tariff as unjust and unconstitutional and demands that states nullify the tariff.


16 In response, Congress passed the Tariff of 1832 which did lower tariffs to about 35% (10% less than the 1828 tariff). South Carolina still resented the tariff. The situation came to a head in the election of 1832 when Nullifiers and Unionists clashed and in 1832 the Nullifiers were victorious in SC. 1. State legislature called a special convention 2. Declared existing federal tariff null and void within S.C. 3. S. C. would make any necessary military preparations to prevent federal forces from collecting the tax 4. If federal troops did come, S. C. would withdraw from the Union.

17 Jackson reacted violently:
1. pledged to uphold the Union 2. promised to hang the nullifiers 3. Dispatched modest naval and military reinforcements to SC 4. quietly raised a sizable Union army 5. issued a proclamation against the nullifiers *Gov. Hayne responded with a counter-proclamation.

18 Henry Clay steps in with the Tariff of 1833
called for the gradual reduction of the Tariff of 1832 by 10% over an 8 year period - basically equal to the 1816 tariff of 20-25%.

19 Congress passed the Force Bill to save face
known to South Carolinians as the Bloody Bill - authorized the president to use army and navy if necessary to collect federal tariff duties. In response, South Carolina would gradually abandon nullification in favor of secession.

20 Indian Problems Jackson regarded the Indian tribes as separate within a state. The Sup Ct/Marshall ruled that the US could not separate the individual tribes within a state. Jackson strongly opposed the Court but decided to remove all eastern tribes (5 Civilized Tribes) beyond the Mississippi River (to make room for whites). Individual Indians could stay if they assimilated into the white man's society. Thus the "Trail of Tears" began.

21 Various Indian tribes began to resist the removal.
Black Hawk - Illinois/Wisconsin - were crushed Seminole - Florida - joined by runaway blacks retreated into the swamp lands (everglades) where they staged guerrilla warfare for 7 years. Finally their leader, Osceola, was seized under a truce flag. Some Seminoles retreated further into the swamps but 4/5 were removed to Oklahoma.

22 Bank Issue: Jackson didn't hate all banks and all businesses - he distrusted monopolistic banking and oversized business - Hated the Bank of the US (BUS). Jackson probably would have approved the bank's recharter in 1836 but Clay decided to push for its recharter 4 years sooner.

23 BUS Clay's reasoning - if Jackson signed it - he would alienate the West and if he vetoed it Jackson would presumably loose the presidency in the next election. The bill to recharter the BUS was approved by Congress and Jackson did veto it as being unconstitutional - even though the Sup Ct in McCulloch v. Maryland declared it constitutional. (federal gov't was needed but was also immune to state taxes).

24 Reasons: 1. Jackson believed the executive branch to be superior to the judicial branch. 2. He condemned the bank as not only anti- Western, but Anti-American (stockholders were foreigners) 3. succeeded in pitting West against East 4. Pitted "Native Americans" (people born here) against foreigners 5. Pitted States' righters vs. centralizers

25 Outcome Created an election issue and a financial panic.


27 Complete Explanation:
A satire on Andrew Jackson's campaign to destroy the Bank of the United States and its support among state banks. Jackson, Martin Van Buren, and Jack Downing struggle against a snake with heads representing the states. Jackson (on the left) raises a cane marked "Veto" and says, "Biddle thou Monster Avaunt!! avaount I say! or by the Great Eternal I'll cleave thee to the earth, aye thee and thy four and twenty satellites. Matty if thou art true...come on. if thou art false, may the venomous monster turn his dire fang upon thee..." Van Buren: "Well done General, Major Jack Downing, Adams, Clay, well done all. I dislike dissentions beyond every thing, for it often compels a man to play a double part, were it only for his own safety. Policy, policy is my motto, but intrigues I cannot countenance." Downing (dropping his axe): "Now ,now you nasty varmint, be you imperishable? I swan General that are beats all I reckon, that's the horrible wiper wot wommits wenemous heads I guess..." The largest of the heads is president of the Bank Nicholas Biddle's, which wears a top hat labeled "Penn" (i.e. Pennsylvania) and "{dollar}35,000,000." This refers to the rechartering of the Bank by the Pennsylvania legislature in defiance of the administration's efforts to destroy it.

28 Election of 1832: *National nominating convention name candidates
National Rep - Henry Clay Demo- Rep - Andrew Jackson *Anti-Masonic Party - William Wirt opposed secrecy of Masonic Order opposed Jackson who was a Mason appealed to evangelical Protestants opposed mail service on Sunday favored keeping Sunday "holy“ *National nominating convention name candidates *had formal platform to publicize their positions on various issues.

29 Outcome - Jackson won.

30 Jackson's Second Term: 1. BUS - because he didn't like it, he weakened the bank by "removing" federal deposits. Surplus funds were to be placed in state "pet banks" In reaction, Nicholas Biddle, head of the BUS recalled western loans to force Congress to reconsider the Bank's charter. This action caused a panic - "Biddle's panic" Jackson's reaction - forced the Treasury department to issue a "specie circular" - a decree that all public lands were to be purchased with "hard" or metallic money - caused hard times for the West (where "hard" money was scarce).

31 1835 National debt was resolved - custom duties continued to come in and thus the US finally had a surplus of money coming in.

32 Election of 1836 Whig Party Democratic Party
William Henry Harrison Martin Van Buren "Tippecanoe" “Jackson's pick and a "yes" man“ Jackson's (+) impact

33 Tippecanoe a. supporters of the American system
b. were southern states' righters c. were large northern industrialists d. Evangelical Protestants of the Anti- Masonic Party Goal: to run several "favorite sons" to distribute the vote so that no one candidate would win a majority.

34 Van Buren Jackson's (+) impact a. strong executive leader
b. led common man into national politics c. united the common man into the Democratic party d. proved that the common man could be trusted with the vote. Jackson's (-) impact: a. encouraged the spoils system b. unsound finances – bank failures.

35 Results: Van Buren wins!

36 Van Buren's Administration:
First American-born president; above average (intelligent, educated) Inherited problems: "bastard politician" - got into office on the coat-tails of Jackson victim of Jackson's enemies Canadian/American boundary dispute that threatened war slavery issue (Texas) depression (panic)


38 Panic of 1837 Cause: over speculation in "get rich schemes“
a. "land office" business with wildcat banks and shaky currency b. canals, roads, railroads, and slaves were over speculated c. Specie Circular d. poor wheat crop (prices went up and caused a riot in NYC) e. British banks facing problems of their own call in some federal loans f. "Pet banks" collapsed g. commodity prices fell h. sale of public lands dropped i. custom duties dried up j. factories closed their doors k. high unemployment

39 Whigs were give the opportunity to:
expand bank credit call for higher tariffs pursue subsidies for internal improvements Van Buren promoted the "Divorce Bill" - wanted government to disassociate government and banking in order to create a more stable economy Result: failed to pass.

40 Texas Mexican government (1823) made an agreement with Stephen F. Austin to bring 300 American families and settle in Texas but they had to: a. be Roman Catholic b. agree to become Mexican citizens.

41 Texas Problems occurred over:
a. slavery - prohibited under Mexican law b. immigration - after no more Americans could come c. denied local rights

42 Texas 1836 - American citizens declared their independence after:
a. Battle of Alamo - Mexican victory b. Battle of Goliad - Mexican victory c. Battle of San Jacinto - Texas victory

43 Texas Treaty: a. Mexico had to withdraw Mexican army
b. Mexico agreed to recognize the Rio Grande as the border. Santa Anna signed the treaty but later claimed he was under duress and therefore voided the treaty.

44 US Response a. Refused to annex Texas due to the slavery issue in 1836 – too controversial b. Texas began to talk with Britain and France to gain support and protection against Mexico.

45 Election of 1840: Whig party :William Henry Harrison w/ John Tyler as VP (nominated mainly because he was issueless and had no enemies) benefited from economic distress had no platform appealed to the West "log cabin & hard cider" people portrayed Harrison as a lowborn farmer (reality he was a FFV, lived modestly, and didn't like cider at all, preferred whiskey)

46 Election of 1840: Democratic Party: Van Buren
Results: Harrison by a slim margin but overwhelming electoral vote (out with the old, in with the new)

47 Two Party System Differences Democrats 1. liberty of individuals
2. favored state's rights 3. against special privileged groups Whigs 1. renewal of bank 2. favored protective tariff 3. for internal improvements 4. for public schools 5. for prohibition 6. favored abolition of slavery

48 Similarities 1. Mass-based "catch-all" parties - in an effort to maximize voters 2. commanded loyalty from voters to the party 3. A lot of "horse-trading" within the party to compromise to achieve power 4. geographically diverse - helped to forestall the slavery issue. to become Mexican citizens.

49 Chapter 13 Quiz Answer the 15 multiple choice questions on a separate sheet of paper and have it ready to turn in next class period for a daily grade. 1. During his long political career, John Quincy Adams was at one time or another all of the following except a. a nationalist. b. vice president. c. secretary of state. d. a congressman. e. president.

50 2. In his veto of the bank recharter bill,
2. In his veto of the bank recharter bill, President Jackson claimed that the bank was all of the following except a. unconstitutional. b. anti-western. c. too much influenced by aristocrats and foreigners. d. corrupt and monopolistic. e. controlled only by the government.

51 3. Stephen F. Austin's grant from the Mexican government required that immigrants whom he helped settle in Texas (select 2) a. become Mexican citizens. b. be Roman Catholics. c. own slaves

52 4. Copy the correct sentence.
___ A. Andrew Jackson was vice president on the ticket of two presidential candidates in ___ B. Henry Clay received more popular votes than any other candidate in 1824 ___ C. John C. Calhoun was eliminated as a candidate when election of was thrown into the House of Representatives

53 5. The House of Representatives decided
5. The House of Representatives decided the 1824 presidential election when a. Henry Clay, as Speaker of the House, made the request. b. no candidate received a majority of the vote in the Electoral College. c. widespread voter fraud was discovered. d. the House was forced to do so by "King Caucus." e. William Crawford suffered a stroke and was forced to drop out of the race.

54 6. The purpose behind the spoils system was
a. to reverse the trend of rotation in office. b. to press those with experience into governmental service. c. to reward political supporters with public office. d. the widespread encouragement of a bureaucratic office-holding class. e. to make politics a sideline and not a full- time business.

55 7. The spoils system under Andrew Jackson resulted in
a. the destruction of the personalized political machine. b. the replacement of insecurity by security in employment. c. the appointment of many corrupt and incompetent officials to federal jobs. d. the same actions of those taken by John Quincy Adams. e. a clean sweep of federal job holders.

56 8. The section of the United States most
8. The section of the United States most hurt by the Tariff of 1828 was a. the Southwest. b. the South. c. the middle states. d. the West. e. New England.

57 9. In their treatment of Native Americans,
9. In their treatment of Native Americans, white Americans did all of the following except a. try to civilize them. b. argue that Indians could not be assimilated into the larger society. c. trick them into ceding land to whites. d. promise to acquire land only through formal treaties. e. recognize the tribes as separate nations.

58 10. One of the positive aspects of the Bank of the United States was
a. its preservation of the public trust. b. that it loaned money to western farmers. c. its officers' awareness of the bank's responsibilities to society. d. its promotion of economic expansion by making credit abundant. e. its issuance of depreciated paper money.

59 11. Americans moved into Texas
a. upon Sam Houston's defeat of General Santa Anna. b. after an agreement was concluded between Mexican authorities and Stephen Austin. c. to spread Protestantism. d. after the Battle of San Jacinto. e. when invited by the Spanish government

60 12. The government of Mexico and the Americans who settled in Mexican- controlled Texas clashed over all of the following issues except a. immigration. b. allegiance to Spain. c. slavery. d. local rights. e. Santa Anna raising an army to use against Texas.

61 13.Texas gained its independence with
a. help from the French. b. no outside assistance. c. help from Britain. d. help from Americans. e. the blessing of the Mexican government.

62 14.Most of the early American settlers in Texas came from
a. the South and Southwest. b. the Ohio Territory. c. New England. d. the middle Atlantic states. e. the Old Northwest.

63 15. William Henry Harrison, the Whig
15. William Henry Harrison, the Whig party's presidential candidate in 1840, was a. a true "common man." b. born in a log cabin. c. the first military officer to become president d. a very effective chief executive. e. made to look like a poor western farmer.

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