Jackson’s Opponents in 1824 Henry Clay [KY] John Quincy Adams [MA] John C. Calhoun [SC] William H. Crawford [GA]
Results of the 1824 Election A “Corrupt Bargain ?” Henry Clay helps Adams; gets Sec. of State job (Sec. of State job seen as pathway to presidency) A “Corrupt Bargain ?” Henry Clay helps Adams; gets Sec. of State job (Sec. of State job seen as pathway to presidency)
Opposition to John Quincy Adams Some believed he allowed too much political control to be held by elites. Some objected to his support of national economic development on constitutional grounds. Adams believed a strong, active central government was necessary. Supports education and the building of roads and canals A national university. An astronomical observatory. A naval academy. Many Americans saw Adams’ vision of a mighty nation led by a strong president as a threat to individual liberties.
Land & Indian Policies John Quincy Adams: His land policies gave westerners another reason to dislike him. He attempted to curb speculation for public lands his opponent accused him of denying their individual rights and freedoms to expand westward! He supported the land rights of Native Americans against white settlers. 1825 govt. officials negotiated a treaty with a group of Creek Indians to cede their land rights to GA. The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce the treaty. The Creek Indians appealed to Adams to renounce the treaty. Congress sided with the governor of GA. Congress sided with the governor of GA.
Tariff of 1828 Signed by John Quincy Adams Higher tariffs on imported raw materials [like wool & hemp]. Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from farmers in NY, OH, KY. The South alone was adamantly against it. As producers of the world’s cheapest cotton, it did not need a protective tariff. They were negatively impacted American textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive!
The Election of Jackson (1828) Before election of 1824 New political parties emerge National Republicans (Adams, Clay) Democratic Republicans (Jacksonian Democrats) Jackson thumps Adams in 1828 Popular vote from 356,000 to 1.1 million Most support from south Jackson rewards his supporters Spoils system Jackson supports limited government
Jackson’s Faith in the “Common Man” Intense distrust of Eastern “establishment,” monopolies, & special privilege. His heart & soul was with the “plain folk.” Belief that the common man was capable of uncommon achievements.
The Nullification Crisis South says Tariff of 1828 unjust; Congress passes Tariff of 1832 to lower tariffs but South is still unhappy Columbia Convention (SC) Voids tariff in SC; threatened to secede if government attempts to collect duties by force (Jackson dispatches military) Henry Clay to the Rescue! Compromise: Tariff of 1833 would lower tariff over next 10 years Congress passed the Force Bill: authorized president to use the army and navy if need be to collect federal tariff duties
Indian Removal Jackson’s Goal? 1830 Indian Removal Act Cherokee Nation v. GA (1831) Worcester v. GA (1832) Jackson: John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it!
The Bank WAR!!! Nicholas Biddle Nicholas Biddle [an arrogant aristocrat from Philadelphia] President Jackson
The Bank & the 1832 Election Jackson saw Biddle’s pushing forward a bill to renew the Bank’s charter earlier as an attempt to block his re-election! Biddle & his associates preferred Clay. Jackson refused to sign the bill to re- charter. The Bank is trying to destroy me, but I will destroy it! Jackson drops Calhoun and runs with Martin Van Buren. Jackson wins 1832 election
The “Monster” Is Destroyed! 1832 Jackson vetoed the extension of the 2 nd National Bank of the United States. -removed federal deposits, places them in “pet banks” (Pro-Jackson state banks) -removed federal deposits, places them in “pet banks” (Pro-Jackson state banks) 1836 the charter expired.
An 1832 Cartoon: “King Andrew”? An 1832 Cartoon: “King Andrew”?
Positions on the Key Issues of 1832 WHIGS (National Republicans) DEMOCRATS(Jacksonians)DEMOCRATS(Jacksonians) Less concerned about the widening gap between rich and poor. Less concerned about the widening gap between rich and poor. Opposed “liberal capitalism” because they believed it would lead to economic chaos. Opposed “liberal capitalism” because they believed it would lead to economic chaos. Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding economy was critical. Strong national govt. to coordinate the expanding economy was critical. Opposes Indian removal. Opposes Indian removal. Favored tariffs. Favored tariffs. Supported a National Bank. Supported a National Bank. Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was alarming. Felt the widening gap between rich and poor was alarming. Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” who used their govt. connections to line their own pockets. Believed that bankers, merchants, and speculators were “non-producers” who used their govt. connections to line their own pockets. Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the economy to allow the little guy a chance to prosper. Govt. should have a hands-off approach to the economy to allow the little guy a chance to prosper. For Indian removal. For Indian removal. Oppose tariffs. Oppose tariffs. States’ rights. States’ rights. Oppose federal support for internal improvements. Oppose federal support for internal improvements. Opposed the National Bank. Opposed the National Bank.
The Specie Circular (1836) Speculators created “wildcat banks” that fueled the runaway inflation. So, buy future federal land only with gold or silver. This move shocked the system. Jackson’s goal to curb the land speculation.
Results of the Specie Circular $Banknotes lost their value. $Land sales plummeted. $Credit not available. $Businesses began to fail. $Unemployment rose. $Some pet banks go under with federal $!!! The Panic of 1837! The Panic of 1837!
The Panic of 1837 Hits Everyone! Independent Treasury Bill 1840: established an independent treasury and gov’t fund will be locked in vaults; repealed 1841, reestablished 1846 until Civil War
TEXAS!!! Mexico allows Stephen Austin to bring 300 families to Texas Catholics only; no slaves; must Mexicanize By 1835, 30,000 Americans President of Mexico, Santa Anna, wanted to bring Texans in line- Austin locked up for 8 mths 1836 claimed independence Battle of the Alamo: 400 Texans wiped out after 13 day siege Jim Bowie and Davie Crockett Treaty of 1836: Signed after Sam Houston captured Santa Anna in Battle of San Jacinto Recognize Rio Grande as border, withdraw Mex. Troops Problems for U.S. if admit Texas as a state!
Log Cabins and Hard Cider 1840 William Henry Harrison wins election of 1840