Presentation on theme: "Democratic politics, religious revival, & reform"— Presentation transcript:
1Democratic politics, religious revival, & reform Chapter 10
2Section 1 Focus Question: How did the democratization of Americans politics contribute to the rise of Andrew Jackson?Big Picture:1824—REP’s splitDEM = state’s rights, Whigs= economy
3Political Democratization The Age of JacksonPolitical DemocratizationEnd voting based on property ownership = more votersEnd written ballotsAppointed offices now became elected officesPolitical “caucuses”—conferences within political party to nominate presidential candidate vs popular vote
4The Election of 1824Jackson won the popular vote but not the majority, so the House of Representatives had to decideHenry Clay, Speaker of House, influenced them to elect John Quincy AdamsOnce in office, Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of StateJackson’s supporters claimed the two men had a “corrupt bargain
10Election of 1828 Lots of “mudslinging” during the campaign Many states were expanding suffrage and the number of voters tripledMany states no longer required owning propertyJackson was supported by thousands of first time voters
12Jackson’s status as a war hero made him popular Love HimJackson’s status as a war hero made him popularThe fact that he did not come from a wealthy family helped people relate to him
13Jackson’s Inaugural Party? Hate HimJackson’s Inaugural Party?Politicians and elite feared he was unpredictable, stubborn, and too independentFeared he would give too much power to the common manPeople feared the “Reign of King Mob”I didn’t think he’d invite the people “en masse!”This is decidedly erroneous!!
14Power to the PeopleHow did the people gain more power during the Age of Jackson?
15Any and all government jobs taken and given to friends/supporters The Spoils SystemAny and all government jobs taken and given to friends/supportersJackson supported the spoils system by sayingAny “intelligent” person could hold office
16In the words of one of his supporters “To the victor goes the spoils.” Used to keep a small group of politicians from controlling the governmentIn the words of one of his supporters “To the victor goes the spoils.”To the VICTOR goes the SPOILS!!!
17Jackson feared the power of the government EgalitarianJackson feared the power of the governmentAttacked (sometimes literally) any politician or law he thought was corrupt or dangerous to liberty
18Did not believe in special privilege for the wealthy Thought bank favored the rich
19Vetoes Jackson worked independently of Congress and politicians Vetoed more acts of Congress than the six previous presidentsEarned himself the nickname “King Andrew I”
21Tariff Battles Tariff of 1816 on imports of cheap textiles. Tariff of 1824 on iron goods and more expensive woolen and cotton imports.Tariff of 1828 higher tariffs on imported raw materials [like wool & hemp].Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from farmers in NY, OH, KY.The South alone was adamantly against it.As producers of the world’s cheapest cotton, it did not need a protective tariff.They were negatively impacted American textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive!
22Votes in the House for the “Tariff of Abomination”
23Nullification What brought about the Nullification Crisis? Why did South Carolina threaten to secede from the Union?How did Jackson react to this threat?What was the result of the nullification crisis?Tariff of 1828—tax on goods in the North to pay for the militaryCould not pay taxes and drove up manufactured prices = BR stopped demanding CottonForce Bill—Threatened with military Olive Branch—reduce the Tariff (1833), Sword—South still pays reduced taxCalhoun (VP) said unconstitutional, South paid b/c feared loosing slavery
24Section 2 Focus Question: How did Jackson’s policies and the Panic of 1837 help launch and solidify the Whig party?Big Picture:Jackson’s veto will try to end banks.Problems: no official printed money!
25PSD: Jackson & Banks Jackson Banks States made void SC voids taxes = cannot collect their own taxesPower to pass laws and make laws that are the Supreme Law of the LandCan’t leave a league and compacts are bindingRich/powerful bend the acts, every man is entitled loansFarmers/mechanics/ laborersSafe & convenient, circulates $, checks local banks, loansEnsure foreign/domestic trade
26War on the banksHow did Jackson feel about the banking system?
27Why did people like or dislike the banks? Gave loans to richProtected moneyManaged state banksAllowed banks to print moneyMade it hard for farmers to get loansAll land must be paid in species (gold or silver)Policies passed by Whigs
28What types of people liked or disliked the banks? Merchants, richWhigs—party against JacksonSouthern Farmers who had large cash cropsDemocratsDepository Act—passed by D to allow state banks to print paper moneyLed to inflationLocos Focos
29Opposition to the 2nd B.U.S. “Soft” (paper) $“Hard” (specie) $felt that coin was the only safe currency.didn’t like any bank that issued bank notes.suspicious of expansion & speculation.state bankers felt it restrained their banks from issuing bank notes freely.supported rapid economic growth & speculation.
30The National Bank Debate President JacksonNicholas Biddle [an arrogant aristocrat from Philadelphia]
31Biddle vs jacksonWho was Nicholas Biddle & why did Jackson dislike him?What did Jackson do when Biddle renewed the charter early?What were the effects of Jackson’s actions?President of NB, allowed rich to take out loans (speculators)Vetoed the charter and took the $ and gave to “pet” or state banksBanks printed too much $ + gave out too many loans = inflation
32The 1836 Election ResultsMartin Van Buren“Old Kinderhook” [O. K.]
33Election of 1836…panic of 1837 The winner is… What created the Panic of 1837?How did Van Buren propose to fix the problems?Martin Van Buren“Martin Van Ruin”Too many banks, loans, notes = inflation, spreading to EuropeCreated an independent treasury—Federal government keeps $ in treasury and monitors how much it gives to the states.
34Results of the Specie Circular Banknotes loose their value.Land sales plummeted.Credit not available.Businesses began to fail.Unemployment rose.The Panic of 1837!
35Section 3 Focus Question: What new assumptions about human nature lay behind the religious movements of the period?Big Picture:Religious and reform movements attempt to change morals in the U.S.
36The First Great Awakening The Second Great Awakening Popular religionThe First Great AwakeningThe Second Great AwakeningWhat do you remember?WhenWhatwhoWhereWhyHow1790’s CTRevivals spread to frontier statesSecond coming of Jesus = repent sins“Exercises” in tentsLed by ordinary farmers & merchantsReligion was a matter of the heart, not headLaw, order, & moralityLed by Methodists
37Charles G Finney1820’s NYArea of former Puritans “Burned-Over District”Former lawyer, then ministerPerformed revivals in Rochester, NY (Great Harvest)Created “anxious seat”Appealed to upper middle classWomen key converters
39Background Beliefs The Book of Mormon 1827 Practiced Polygyny Descendents went to America waiting for Jesus who came and performed miraclesDescendents turn to Natives by god because of conflictPracticed PolygynyPolygyny: The practice of a man having more than one wife.Simple religion understandingAttracted poor and uneducatedGoal: Convert Indians and escape persecution
40One of the two documents that was very important to American Republic Views by othersWent against the bibleOne of the two documents that was very important to American Republic
41By: Jacob Koller, The Stephinator, and Hunter Sullenberger UnitariansBy: Jacob Koller, The Stephinator, and Hunter Sullenberger
42Unitarians Formed in the 1800s. Concentrated mainly in New England. Believed that Jesus Christ was less than fully divine. (Jesus was just an average human)Believed that human beings could change for the better.Criticized revivalists and had conflict with them. (revivalists were too emotional)
441 BackgroundThe founder was mother Ann Lee in 1770came over form England in 1774created agricultural-artisans societies, called families2 Beliefscommunal societies separated men and womenno marriagesanti-materialismseparated from the outsideconfession of sinsgrowth through adoptionnamed for their religions danceno discrimination3 reactionspeople considered their communities beautifuladmired their architecture, crafts, and furniture.
46Section 4 Focus Question: Did the reform movements primarily aim at making Americans more equal or orderly?Big Picture:Men & women joined reform movements to improve education, equality, & civil rights.