CHAPTER 10 DEMOCRATIC POLITICS, RELIGIOUS REVIVAL, & REFORM
SECTION 1 Focus Question: How did the democratization of Americans politics contribute to the rise of Andrew Jackson? Big Picture: 1824—REP’s split DEM = state’s rights, Whigs= economy
THE AGE OF JACKSON Political Democratization End voting based on property ownership = more voters End written ballots Appointed offices now became elected offices Political “caucuses”—conferences within political party to nominate presidential candidate vs popular vote
THE ELECTION OF 1824 Jackson won the popular vote but not the majority, so the House of Representatives had to decide Henry Clay, Speaker of House, influenced them to elect John Quincy Adams Once in office, Adams appointed Clay as Secretary of State Jackson’s supporters claimed the two men had a “corrupt bargain
ELECTION OF 1828 Lots of “mudslinging” during the campaign Many states were expanding suffrage and the number of voters tripled Many states no longer required owning property Jackson was supported by thousands of first time voters
LOVE HIM Jackson’s status as a war hero made him popular The fact that he did not come from a wealthy family helped people relate to him
This is decidedly erroneous!! I didn’t think he’d invite the people “en masse!” HATE HIM Politicians and elite feared he was unpredictable, stubborn, and too independent Feared he would give too much power to the common man People feared the “Reign of King Mob”
POWER TO THE PEOPLE How did the people gain more power during the Age of Jackson?
THE SPOILS SYSTEM Any and all government jobs taken and given to friends/supporters Jackson supported the spoils system by saying Any “intelligent” person could hold office
Used to keep a small group of politicians from controlling the government In the words of one of his supporters “To the victor goes the spoils.” To the VICTOR goes the SPOILS!!!
EGALITARIAN Jackson feared the power of the government Attacked (sometimes literally) any politician or law he thought was corrupt or dangerous to liberty
Did not believe in special privilege for the wealthy Thought bank favored the rich Thought bank favored the rich
VETOES Jackson worked independently of Congress and politicians Vetoed more acts of Congress than the six previous presidents Earned himself the nickname “King Andrew I”
Tariff Battles 3 Tariff of 1816 on imports of cheap textiles. 3 Tariff of 1824 on iron goods and more expensive woolen and cotton imports. 3 Tariff of 1828 higher tariffs on imported raw materials [like wool & hemp]. Supported by Jacksonians to gain votes from farmers in NY, OH, KY. The South alone was adamantly against it. As producers of the world’s cheapest cotton, it did not need a protective tariff. They were negatively impacted American textiles and iron goods [or the taxed English goods] were more expensive!
Votes in the House for the “Tariff of Abomination”
NULLIFICATION What brought about the Nullification Crisis? Why did South Carolina threaten to secede from the Union? How did Jackson react to this threat? What was the result of the nullification crisis? Tariff of 1828—tax on goods in the North to pay for the military Could not pay taxes and drove up manufactured prices = BR stopped demanding Cotton Force Bill—Threatened with military Olive Branch—reduce the Tariff (1833), Sword—South still pays reduced tax Calhoun (VP) said unconstitutional, South paid b/c feared loosing slavery
SECTION 2 Focus Question: How did Jackson’s policies and the Panic of 1837 help launch and solidify the Whig party? Big Picture: Jackson’s veto will try to end banks. Problems: no official printed money!
PSD: JACKSON & BANKS Jackson 1.States made void 2.SC voids taxes = cannot collect their own taxes 3.Power to pass laws and make laws that are the Supreme Law of the Land 4.Can’t leave a league and compacts are binding Banks 1.Rich/powerful bend the acts, every man is entitled loans 2.Farmers/mechanics/ laborers 3.Safe & convenient, circulates $, checks local banks, loans 4.Ensure foreign/domestic trade
WAR ON THE BANKS How did Jackson feel about the banking system?
WHY DID PEOPLE LIKE OR DISLIKE THE BANKS? LikeDislike Gave loans to rich Protected money Managed state banks Allowed banks to print money Made it hard for farmers to get loans All land must be paid in species (gold or silver) Policies passed by Whigs
WHAT TYPES OF PEOPLE LIKED OR DISLIKED THE BANKS? LikedDisliked Merchants, rich Whigs—party against Jackson Southern Farmers who had large cash crops Democrats Depository Act—passed by D to allow state banks to print paper money Led to inflation Locos Focos
Opposition to the 2 nd B.U.S. “Soft” (paper) $ “Hard” (specie) $ 3s3s3s3state bankers felt it restrained their banks from issuing bank notes freely. 3s3s3s3supported rapid economic growth & speculation. 3f3f3f3felt that coin was the only safe currency. 3d3d3d3didn’t like any bank that issued bank notes. 3s3s3s3suspicious of expansion & speculation.
The National Bank Debate Nicholas Biddle Nicholas Biddle [an arrogant aristocrat from Philadelphia] President Jackson
BIDDLE VS JACKSON Who was Nicholas Biddle & why did Jackson dislike him? What did Jackson do when Biddle renewed the charter early? What were the effects of Jackson’s actions? President of NB, allowed rich to take out loans (speculators) Vetoed the charter and took the $ and gave to “pet” or state banks Banks printed too much $ + gave out too many loans = inflation
The 1836 Election Results Martin Van Buren “Old Kinderhook” [O. K.]
ELECTION OF 1836…PANIC OF 1837 The winner is… What created the Panic of 1837? How did Van Buren propose to fix the problems? Martin Van Buren Too many banks, loans, notes = inflation, spreading to Europe Created an independent treasury—Federal government keeps $ in treasury and monitors how much it gives to the states. “Martin Van Ruin”
Results of the Specie Circular $Banknotes loose their value. $Land sales plummeted. $Credit not available. $Businesses began to fail. $Unemployment rose. The Panic of 1837! The Panic of 1837!
SECTION 3 Focus Question: What new assumptions about human nature lay behind the religious movements of the period? Big Picture: Religious and reform movements attempt to change morals in the U.S.
POPULAR RELIGION The First Great Awakening What do you remember? When What who Where Why How The Second Great Awakening 1790’s CT Revivals spread to frontier states Second coming of Jesus = repent sins “Exercises” in tents Led by ordinary farmers & merchants Religion was a matter of the heart, not head Law, order, & morality Led by Methodists
CHARLES G FINNEY 1820’s NY Area of former Puritans “Burned-Over District” Former lawyer, then minister Performed revivals in Rochester, NY (Great Harvest) Created “anxious seat” Appealed to upper middle class Women key converters
The Book of Mormon 1827 Descendents went to America waiting for Jesus who came and performed miracles Descendents turn to Natives by god because of conflict Practiced Polygyny Polygyny: The practice of a man having more than one wife. Simple religion understanding Attracted poor and uneducated Goal: Convert Indians and escape persecution BackgroundBeliefs
VIEWS BY OTHERS Went against the bible One of the two documents that was very important to American Republic
UNITARIANS BY: JACOB KOLLER, THE STEPHINATOR, AND HUNTER SULLENBERGER
UNITARIANS Formed in the 1800s. Concentrated mainly in New England. Believed that Jesus Christ was less than fully divine. (Jesus was just an average human) Believed that human beings could change for the better. Criticized revivalists and had conflict with them. (revivalists were too emotional)
1 Background The founder was mother Ann Lee in 1770 came over form England in 1774 created agricultural-artisans societies, called families 2 Beliefs communal societies separated men and women no marriages anti-materialism separated from the outside confession of sins growth through adoption named for their religions dance no discrimination 3 reactions people considered their communities beautiful admired their architecture, crafts, and furniture.
SECTION 4 Focus Question: Did the reform movements primarily aim at making Americans more equal or orderly? Big Picture: Men & women joined reform movements to improve education, equality, & civil rights.