Presentation on theme: "Andrew Jackson “was widely acclaimed as the symbol of what the new American thought himself to be--a self-made man, son of the frontier, endowed with."— Presentation transcript:
Andrew Jackson “was widely acclaimed as the symbol of what the new American thought himself to be--a self-made man, son of the frontier, endowed with virtue and God-given strength because of his closeness to nature, and possessed of indomitable will and moral courage.”
Andrew Jackson The Age of the Common Man The Symbol of New America The leader of the Age of Democracy Hero of the Common Man
Jackson the Boy and Man Andrew Jackson was the 7th President Born: March 15, 1767 in Waxhaw, South Carolina. Third son of immigrant parents from northern Ireland, Andrew Jackson and Elizabeth Hutchinson Wanted their son to become a Presbyterian minister His father died in a logging accident a few weeks before he was born
Was six feet one inches tall, slender of build Described as having a self- assured bearing and a commanding air. Was in pain much of his adult life from bullets left in his body and from dysentery which frequently drained his strength
As a child, Jackson had a penchant for drooling, which continued all his life. He would often spit excessively when he spoke. He was violent and aggressive He dislike school and book learning
Uninterested in returning to school he gambled away an inheritance Briefly taught school At age 17 began to study law At age 21 moved to TN –Started a law practice –Accumulated land and slaves –And became a wealthy self-made man
Jackson the Hero of New Orleans A major general in the War of 1812, Jackson became a national hero when he defeated the British at New Orleans on Jan. 8, 1815. Earned the name “Old Hickory for his toughness In 1814 took a little trip….
Election of 1824 Jackson/Adams/Crawford/Clay no one won the majority of the electoral vote/Jackson had won the popular vote No majority the election went to the U.S. House of Representatives. Henry Clay lobbied for John Quincy Adams Adams won the required vote and became the 6 th president of the United States of America Adams makes Clay his Sec of State Jackson fans claim “corrupt bargin” Jackson First attempt at the Presidency 1824
Jackson tries again in the Election of 1828 Trend in the country – more democratic –Moved from caucus to nominating convention –Expanding suffrage Adams (Whig) v Jackson (Democrats) Jackson easily won His inauguration is famous for the party he threw. “motley concourse of people”
Jackson’s Presidency The National Bank Hated for several reasons –Unconstitutional Only states had right to charter banks –Favored the rich –Bank did not give the common man equal economic opportunity National bank gave state banks money to loan to the people When the national bank thought the state banks were making too many loans they limited the amount the banks could lend Jackson veto charter of national bank Did not hurt Jackson popularity won the 1832 election Nicholas Biddle and Andrew Jackson Jackson said "is trying to kill me, but I will kill it!"
Jackson’s Presidency Spoils System Jackson believed the common man could hold office without experience, so he advocated Rotation in office/The Spoils System: rewarding political supports with public office Number of supports got gov. jobs only one Sec of State Martin Van Buren was qualified Seldom meet with “true” cabinet meet with group of unofficial advisors – meet with them in the White House kitchen Became known as the Kitchen cabinet This cartoon illustrates a perception of Jackson’s unofficial "Kitchen Cabinet," a group of close friends who advised him.
Jackson’s Presidency Tariff Problems –High tariff that would protect manufactures from foreign goods was passed in 1828 –Hurt the South – pay more for imports –Could a state nullify (declare invalid) a federal law it considered unconstitutional? –“Absolutely” said John C. Calhoun (VP) In essay “South Carolina Exposition and Protest” took ideas from Jefferson Called it the Tariff of Abominations State has a right to judge whether a law passed by Congress is Constitutional John C. Calhoun was arguing for states’ rights
Jackson’s Presidency Webster – Hayne Debate Daniel Webster of MS vs Robert Hayne of SC Debated who supreme power belonged to; the federal gov or the state gov Jackson agreed with Webster’s strong defense of national sovereignty
Many expected Jackson (born in the South lived in the West) would agree But………… At a Jefferson Day dinner in April 1830 Jackson gave a toast to national sovereignty, “Our Union: it must be preserved.” Calhoun toasted state sovereignty, “The Union: next to our liberty most dear.” Calhoun resigned
Jackson’s Presidency Nullification Crisis –South Carolina nullified the new Tariff of 1832 that had been passed –Threatened to secede (withdraw) from Union if challenged –Congress passed the Force Bill which authorized military action to enforce tariff –Jackson said he would lead army himself and hang Calhoun –Civil War avoided when 1833 Compromise Tariff is agreed upon –But just for spite South Carolina nullified the Force Bill –Sectional tensions increase John C. Calhoun
Jackson’s Presidency Indian Removal Act –Passed in response to land-hungry white settlers – Under orders from President Jackson and in defiance of the U.S. Supreme Court, the U.S. Army began enforcement of the Removal Act. –The Indians were rounded up in the summer of 1838 and forced to present day Oklahoma –The Trail of Tears
Legacy of Andrew Jackson More democracy for adult white males – but not anyone else, especially poor, immigrants, and women. The emergence of a solid two-party system in the United States The modern Democratic Party was founded under Jackson. Politics for many men became a career Decline of Native Americans in the West
History seems to remember Jackson as a symbol of the New Age of Democracy, and as an example of the ”Age of the Common Man." He died June 8, 1845 at the Hermitage near Nashville, Tennessee.