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1829-1837 THE AGE OF JACKSON “OLD HICKORY”. ELECTION OF 1824 Jackson won popular vote No clear majority in electoral college- House to decide “Corrupt.

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Presentation on theme: "1829-1837 THE AGE OF JACKSON “OLD HICKORY”. ELECTION OF 1824 Jackson won popular vote No clear majority in electoral college- House to decide “Corrupt."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE AGE OF JACKSON “OLD HICKORY”

2 ELECTION OF 1824 Jackson won popular vote No clear majority in electoral college- House to decide “Corrupt Bargain”-H. Clay swings votes towards JQ Adams JQ Adams wins-Clay is awarded with a position in govt.-Sec. of State DR start to fracture (separate interests)- some factions support Adams (National Republicans), others Jackson (Jacksonian Democrats)

3 JACKSON ELECTED-1828 Election: National Republicans vs. Jacksonian Democrats 1 st non-traditional president 1 st president from a poor family background Wife died prior of heart attack-lurid attacks vs. her?- devastated him

4 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY & POLITICS OF THE COMMON MAN Votes rose sevenfold from …why? (Under JQ)-religious and property qualifications were eliminated (for all white males) Improved education Increase in newspaper circulation 1830s-King Caucus (closed door political party leaders in Congress meeting) was replaced by party nominating conventions: party politicians and voters would gather to nominate the party’s candidate By 1832, all but S. Carolina allowed voters to choose their electors rather than the state legislature Popular participation=more democratic

5 JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY Support from the less-wealthy Feared power of the federal govt. Restricted federal activity as much as possible- unless it’s presidential authority

6 PEGGY EATON AFFAIR Peggy-wife of Jackson’s secretary of war: a target of gossip Jackson tried to force his cabinet members and their wives to accept her; most resigned, led by his VP John C. Calhoun (new VP=Martin Van Buren) Reminded him of the attacks vs. Rachel Kitchen cabinet-his unofficial group of advisors following the purge of his original cabinet

7 SPOILS SYSTEM “TO THE VICTORS, GO THE SPOILS” Patronage-giving govt. jobs to friends and supporters Official when Jackson took office Defense: any intelligent person could be a competent public official Contributed to his image as the champion of the common man

8 TARIFF CRISIS Tariff of 1828/Tariff of Abominations (under JQ)-heavy tax on imports to encourage American manufacturing Benefitted industrial North; hurt the South (had to pay higher prices for manuf. goods) S.C. declared the state had the right to nullify the tariff as it was unconstitutional (nullification theory)…John C. Calhoun Issue festered and was debated at Senate 1832-another tariff was passed that cut rates, but was still high on cloth and iron; S.C. advised the tariff was void and threatened to secede The defiance enraged the President, he threatened to send troops in to enforce the law (Force Bill) H. Clay-Compromise Tariff: reduced the import duties and S.C. cancelled the nullification act

9 INDIAN RELOCATION Wealthy plantation owners were buying land for cotton/farming States began taking control of Indian lands after Jackson took office; Pres. Supported the states Encouraged the Indian Removal Act: land in parts of the LA. Purchase for lands in the East Forcibly relocated 5 “civilized” tribes- Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole Gold was found on Cherokee land (who had adopted white culture more than others) The state of GA. seized the land, Cherokee sued

10 INDIAN RELOCATION-CONT Cherokee v. GA: Cherokees are not a foreign nation; S.C. denied hearing the case 1832-Worchester v. GA: originally Worchester lost in GA., goes to Supreme Court who recognized Indians as a domestic nation: the laws of GA. have no force within the boundaries of the Cherokee territory Marshall ruled the state of GA. had no authority over the land; Jackson: “Marshall has made his ruling, now let him enforce it.” Trail of Tears: Cherokee actually not removed until a year after Jackson leaves office, but others were removed during his term (1/4 die) Chief Osceola and Renegade=Seminole resistance

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13 BANK WAR Bank was a “monster” institution controlled by a small group of the wealthy Nicholas Biddle-the bank’s president: arrogant, suspicion he abused powers and represented the wealthy 1832-vetoed the bill to re-charter the bank (would only operate to 1836) Withdrew federal funds from the bank and put in pet banks around the country Pet banks printed and lent money recklessly; later forced Jackson to only accept gold or silver for payment of federal lands Led to panic and depression, loss of jobs & poverty

14 FORMATION OF THE WHIG PARTY Bank’s supporters found Jackson to be a power-hungry tyrant Led by Clay and Webster, the Bank’s supporters formed a new political party, the Whigs Whigs: nationalists, broad interpretation of the Constitution, favored the American system of protective tariffs, internal improvements and a national bank Election of 1832-Whigs nominate Clay, but Jackson wins in a landslide

15 OTHER Dubbed “King Andrew I” by National Republicans based on his power Vetoes more bills (12) than all the vetoes by the prior 6 presidents added together Frail health-chose not to run for a 3 rd term Democratic donkey often attributed to what individuals referred to Jackson as


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