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The Age of Andrew Jackson

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1 The Age of Andrew Jackson
“Oh the IRONY! My image is affixed on national currency!”

2 The Republican Party Changes
Some members clung to old Republican ideals of limited government and strict interpretation of the Constitution Most of the Rep. adopted what had once been a Federalist program. A Republican congress maintained a large army and navy, chartered a Second Bank of the US in 1816 (originally championed by Hamilton, the Federalist) Some reversed their views from one decade to the next. Daniel Webster of Mass. Strongly opposed the tariffs of 1816 and 1824 but in 1828 supported even higher tariff rates, John C. Calhoun of S.C. an outspoken war hawk and nationalist in 1812, became a leading champion of states’ rights after 1828 Political factions and sectional differences became more intense during Monroe’s second term. Monroe honored the two-term tradition.

3 How would a party choose a candidate?
Candidates for office would be nominated either by state legislatures or by “King Caucus”-a closed door meeting of a political party’s leaders in Congress. The common people had no opportunity to participate 1830’s caucuses would be replaced by nominating conventions in which political parties and voters would gather in a large meeting hall to nominate the party’s candidates. This is MORE democratic

4 “Era of good feelings” turns into political bad feelings
Old conventional caucus system for choosing presidential candidates had broken down As a result, FOUR candidates of the same party (Republican party founded by Jefferson) campaigned for the presidency Andrew Jackson John Quincy Adams Henry Clay William Crawford

5 The Election of 1824 All were Republicans, so they split the electoral votes. Jackson won the popular vote NO Electoral College majority so the House of Rep. would choose of the top 3. Henry Clay used his influence in the House to provide J. Q. Adams enough votes Adams appoints Clay as the Sec. of State once he throws his support behind Adams, viewed by some as a “secret political maneuvers” that Jackson will call a Corrupt Bargain! Adams WINS! Jacksonians feel ripped off already and Adams further alienates them by pushing his financial limits with Congress Too much money allocated for internal improvements, that Jackson felt was a waste of money.

6 The Election of 1824 Candidate Popular Vote Electoral Vote
Andrew Jackson 153,544 99 John Quincy Adams 108,740 84 Henry Clay 47,136 37 William Crawford 46,618 41

7 The Image of Andrew Jackson
He represents the symbol of emerging working and middle class…“common man” Chewed tobacco, fought duels, had rough manners, no college education An extraordinary, ordinary self-made man, living a legend. He drew support from all social groups and sections of the country

8 The Role he takes on… Protector of the people against abuses of power by rich and privileged Frugal-opposed spending or increasing national debt. Narrow interpretation of the role of Congress (for this reason, he had a lot of vetoes) Maysville Rd. Construction-vetoed it because it was in Kentucky (Clay’s home state) He had unofficial advisors known as the “kitchen cabinet” that were not actual members of the presidential cabinet

9 New Campaign Tactics Since voters are more involved in the nominating process, campaigning becomes a necessity The Dirty tricks of “Old Hickory” go beyond the BBQs and parades that were now a part of a national campaign. Ex. “Adam’s wife was born out of wedlock” was retaliated with “Jackson’s wife is adulterous.”

10 The Election of 1828 Candidate Popular Vote Electoral Vote
John Quincy Adams 508,064 83 Andrew Jackson 647,286 178

11 Election of 1828 Jackson wins, not because of the issues but because he has come to be a well known war here, a man of the western frontier…he won because of his image.

12 EXPANDING DEMOCRACY De Tocqueville notices democratic ways, few class differences yet oppression of blacks Middle /lower class males voted more Most states eliminated property qualifications for voting Nominating conventions used vs. caucuses National campaigns More officials elected vs. appointed Spoils system/.rotation in office = all could hold office

13 Tariff of 1828 North is satisfied with the tariff of 1828
South denounced it as a tariff of abominations (felt that it was too high and unconstitutional) Keeping in mind that even the Republicans didn’t know how they felt as a party about tariffs, sectional differences are certainly dividing them.

14 TARIFF Jackson favored states’ rights but not disunion
1828 tariff = Tariff of Abominations  So. Carolina said was too high and unconstitutional Revolution of 1828 (Adams possible reelection?) Jacksonians use the discontent of the South and the West and some new campaign tactics to get Jackson elected

15 The Tariff of Abominations
1828, Congress passed a heavy tariff Calhoun secretly (at first) supports nullification in South Carolina Force Bill… authorizes Jackson to use force if necessary Compromise Tariff of 1833 (brokered by Henry Clay) SC repeals nullification John C. Calhoun

16 NULLIFICATION CRISIS Regarding the Tariff of Abominations
Calhoun issued Doctrine of Nullification = each state could decide if federal laws were constitutional (if not, could nullify them) Jackson threatened federal troops (Force Bill) if South Carolina didn’t enforce tariff/nullified Congress passed lower tariff  crisis avoided although South Carolina nullified Force Bill threatening troops Congress passed lower tariff  crisis avoided tho So. Carolina nullified Force Bill threatening troops Secession a possibility according to Calhoun

Jackson not democratic toward Indians-were in the way of white settlement removed to W of Miss R 1830: Indian Removal Act-by 1835 most complied and moved Cherokees in Georgia challenged Worcester v. Georgia=state laws had not effect on Indian nations Jackson sided w. states – defied Supreme Court Trail of Tear in 1838

Created the Bureau of Indian Affairs Marshall sided with the Cherokees but it didn’t matter because Jackson ignored the ruling of the Supreme Court and forced removal of the Indians anyway. The U.S. Army forced 15,000 Cherokees to leave Georgia on the “trail of tears” 4000 Cherokees died enroute

19 NATIONAL BANK Bank of U.S. and it’s branches were privately owned by received federal deposits and attempted to serve public purposes (cushion ups and downs of the economy by adjusting interest rates and loans) Bank president was effective by arrogant so people suspected that he abused his power (Jackson did anyway) Clay favored the bank, so he wanted to recharter, Bank Recharter Bill 1832 Jackson vetoed the bill and denounced it as a private monopoly that enriched the wealthy at the expense of the common man.

20 The National Bank

21 NATIONAL BANK Henry Clay brought recharter of bank up early to challenge Jackson in election year Jackson believed bank was unconstitutional and that it favored Northern interests  he subsequently vetoed Took federal money out and put in “pet” state banks

22 The Election of 1832

23 King Andrew

24 Pet Banks Jackson vetoed the recharter and withdrew federal funds
He transferred the money into various state banks=Pet banks This lead to bad inflation In order to check inflationary trends, Jackson ordered the Specie Circular

25 The Election of 1836 Martin Van Buren Candidate Popular Vote
Electoral Vote Van Buren 764,176 170 William H. Harrison 550,816 73 Hugh L. White 146,107 26

26 The Panic of 1837

27 Specie Circular and Panic of 1837
Specie Circular-requires all future purchases of fed. Lands to be made in gold and silver, not paper bank notes Too little too late Bank notes lost value, land sales plummeted, economic CRASH! Eventually created Panic of 1837 lasting until 1843 Panics are economic depressions

28 Tippecanoe and Tyler Too. http://www. binghamtonschools


30 Websites for Andrew Jackson
White House Presidential Biographies Andrew Jackson The Good, evil and presidency PBS Documentary The Conquerers: Andrew Jackson against the Seminoles

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