Presentation on theme: "The Age of Andrew Jackson “Oh the IRONY! My image is affixed on national currency!”"— Presentation transcript:
The Age of Andrew Jackson “Oh the IRONY! My image is affixed on national currency!”
The Republican Party Changes Some members clung to old Republican ideals of limited government and strict interpretation of the Constitution Most of the Rep. adopted what had once been a Federalist program. A Republican congress maintained a large army and navy, chartered a Second Bank of the US in 1816 (originally championed by Hamilton, the Federalist) Some reversed their views from one decade to the next. – Daniel Webster of Mass. Strongly opposed the tariffs of 1816 and 1824 but in 1828 supported even higher tariff rates, – John C. Calhoun of S.C. an outspoken war hawk and nationalist in 1812, became a leading champion of states’ rights after 1828 Political factions and sectional differences became more intense during Monroe’s second term. Monroe honored the two-term tradition.
How would a party choose a candidate? Candidates for office would be nominated either by state legislatures or by “King Caucus”-a closed door meeting of a political party’s leaders in Congress. The common people had no opportunity to participate 1830’s caucuses would be replaced by nominating conventions in which political parties and voters would gather in a large meeting hall to nominate the party’s candidates. This is MORE democratic
“Era of good feelings” turns into political bad feelings Old conventional caucus system for choosing presidential candidates had broken down As a result, FOUR candidates of the same party (Republican party founded by Jefferson) campaigned for the presidency – Andrew Jackson – John Quincy Adams – Henry Clay – William Crawford
The Election of 1824 All were Republicans, so they split the electoral votes. Jackson won the popular vote NO Electoral College majority so the House of Rep. would choose of the top 3. Henry Clay used his influence in the House to provide J. Q. Adams enough votes Adams appoints Clay as the Sec. of State once he throws his support behind Adams, viewed by some as a “secret political maneuvers” that Jackson will call a Corrupt Bargain! Adams WINS! Jacksonians feel ripped off already and Adams further alienates them by pushing his financial limits with Congress – Too much money allocated for internal improvements, that Jackson felt was a waste of money.
The Election of 1824 CandidatePopular VoteElectoral Vote Andrew Jackson153,54499 John Quincy Adams108,74084 Henry Clay47,13637 William Crawford46,61841
The Image of Andrew Jackson He represents the symbol of emerging working and middle class…“common man” – Chewed tobacco, fought duels, had rough manners, no college education – An extraordinary, ordinary self-made man, living a legend. – He drew support from all social groups and sections of the country
The Role he takes on… Protector of the people against abuses of power by rich and privileged Frugal-opposed spending or increasing national debt. Narrow interpretation of the role of Congress (for this reason, he had a lot of vetoes) Maysville Rd. Construction-vetoed it because it was in Kentucky (Clay’s home state) He had unofficial advisors known as the “kitchen cabinet” that were not actual members of the presidential cabinet
New Campaign Tactics Since voters are more involved in the nominating process, campaigning becomes a necessity The Dirty tricks of “Old Hickory” go beyond the BBQs and parades that were now a part of a national campaign. Ex. “Adam’s wife was born out of wedlock” was retaliated with “Jackson’s wife is adulterous.”
The Election of 1828 CandidatePopular VoteElectoral Vote John Quincy Adams508,06483 Andrew Jackson647,286178
Election of 1828 Jackson wins, not because of the issues but because he has come to be a well known war here, a man of the western frontier…he won because of his image.
EXPANDING DEMOCRACY De Tocqueville notices democratic ways, few class differences yet oppression of blacks Middle /lower class males voted more Most states eliminated property qualifications for voting Nominating conventions used vs. caucuses National campaigns More officials elected vs. appointed Spoils system/.rotation in office = all could hold office
Tariff of 1828 North is satisfied with the tariff of 1828 South denounced it as a tariff of abominations (felt that it was too high and unconstitutional) Keeping in mind that even the Republicans didn’t know how they felt as a party about tariffs, sectional differences are certainly dividing them.
TARIFF Jackson favored states’ rights but not disunion 1828 tariff = Tariff of Abominations So. Carolina said was too high and unconstitutional Revolution of 1828 (Adams possible reelection?) Jacksonians use the discontent of the South and the West and some new campaign tactics to get Jackson elected
The Tariff of Abominations John C. Calhoun 1828, Congress passed a heavy tariff Calhoun secretly (at first) supports nullification in South Carolina Force Bill… authorizes Jackson to use force if necessary Compromise Tariff of 1833 (brokered by Henry Clay) SC repeals nullification
NULLIFICATION CRISIS Regarding the Tariff of Abominations Calhoun issued Doctrine of Nullification = each state could decide if federal laws were constitutional (if not, could nullify them) Jackson threatened federal troops (Force Bill) if South Carolina didn’t enforce tariff/nullified Congress passed lower tariff crisis avoided although South Carolina nullified Force Bill threatening troops Congress passed lower tariff crisis avoided tho So. Carolina nullified Force Bill threatening troops Secession a possibility according to Calhoun
NATIVE AMERICAN POLICY Jackson not democratic toward Indians-were in the way of white settlement removed to W of Miss R 1830: Indian Removal Act-by 1835 most complied and moved Cherokees in Georgia challenged Worcester v. Georgia=state laws had not effect on Indian nations Jackson sided w. states – defied Supreme Court Trail of Tear in 1838
NATIVE AMERICAN POLICY Created the Bureau of Indian Affairs Marshall sided with the Cherokees but it didn’t matter because Jackson ignored the ruling of the Supreme Court and forced removal of the Indians anyway. The U.S. Army forced 15,000 Cherokees to leave Georgia on the “trail of tears” 4000 Cherokees died enroute
NATIONAL BANK Bank of U.S. and it’s branches were privately owned by received federal deposits and attempted to serve public purposes (cushion ups and downs of the economy by adjusting interest rates and loans) Bank president was effective by arrogant so people suspected that he abused his power (Jackson did anyway) Clay favored the bank, so he wanted to recharter, Bank Recharter Bill 1832 Jackson vetoed the bill and denounced it as a private monopoly that enriched the wealthy at the expense of the common man.
The National Bank
NATIONAL BANK Henry Clay brought recharter of bank up early to challenge Jackson in election year Jackson believed bank was unconstitutional and that it favored Northern interests he subsequently vetoed Took federal money out and put in “pet” state banks
The Election of 1832
Pet Banks Jackson vetoed the recharter and withdrew federal funds He transferred the money into various state banks=Pet banks This lead to bad inflation In order to check inflationary trends, Jackson ordered the Specie Circular
The Election of 1836 Martin Van Buren CandidatePopular VoteElectoral Vote Van Buren764, William H. Harrison550,81673 Hugh L. White146,10726
The Panic of 1837
Specie Circular and Panic of 1837 Specie Circular-requires all future purchases of fed. Lands to be made in gold and silver, not paper bank notes Too little too late Bank notes lost value, land sales plummeted, economic CRASH! Eventually created Panic of 1837 lasting until 1843 Panics are economic depressions
Tippecanoe and Tyler Too! Tippecanoe and Tyler Too! 67&catfilter=198
Websites for Andrew Jackson acksonhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewj ackson White House Presidential Biographies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EGfxyeuy8u8&feat ure=related Andrew Jackson The Good, evil and presidency PBS Documentary https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EGfxyeuy8u8&feat ure=related https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsukWXCaXuY&fe ature=related https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bsukWXCaXuY&fe ature=related The Conquerers: Andrew Jackson against the Seminoles