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CH. 7-2 THE AGE OF JACKSON AMERICAN HISTORY. PATH TO THE PRESIDENCY Andrew Jackson served in the Revolution At a young age, he was “roaring, rollicking,

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Presentation on theme: "CH. 7-2 THE AGE OF JACKSON AMERICAN HISTORY. PATH TO THE PRESIDENCY Andrew Jackson served in the Revolution At a young age, he was “roaring, rollicking,"— Presentation transcript:


2 PATH TO THE PRESIDENCY Andrew Jackson served in the Revolution At a young age, he was “roaring, rollicking, and mischievous” Moved to TN 1788 and became a lawyer He served in the House and Senate He was a hero in the War of 1812 at the Battle of New Orleans He ran for President against John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay in 1824

3 Jackson won the popular vote but Adams had more electoral votes The election was decided by the House Clay gave his support to Adams Adams wins and names Clay as Secretary of State Adams and Clay made “secret deal” Jackson vows to defeat Adams in the next election

4 Jackson and supporters create a new political party – The Democratic Party Adams and supporters became the National Republican Party Adams was not popular and his administration was beset by scandal Election of 1828—Jackson defeats Adams The Age of Jackson had begun “Jacksonian Democracy” had the support of ordinary Americans

5 THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT Land east of the Mississippi largely settled by white Americans In southeast, huge expanses of land still controlled by native Americans Five major groups: Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Seminole, and Creek AKA “The Five Civilized Tribes” Some Americans respected these peoples but many thought they were inferior

6 THE INDIAN REMOVAL ACT Jackson thought the best action was to relocate the native Americans The Indian Removal Act passed in 1830 Called for the relocation of the five nations to an area west of the Mississippi River called Indian Territory—present-day Oklahoma US Army supervises relocation of Choctaw, Creek, and Chickasaw

7 About ¼ of the people died during the march THE SEMINOLES FIGHT BACK Seminole Indians used armed force They conducted hit-and-run attacks on American soldiers About 3000 were forced to move and were never officially defeated Some Seminoles still live in FL today

8 THE TRAIL OF TEARS The Cherokee fought relocation through the American court system The sued the federal government saying they had the right to be respected as a foreign country The case reaches the Supreme Court but is rejected by Chief Justice Marshall Ruling: The Cherokee had no right to sue since they were neither citizens nor a foreign country

9 The Cherokee had a back-up plan Samuel Austin Worcester was a white man, teacher, and friend of the Cherokee. He sued the federal government and the state of Georgia on their behalf Worcester v. Georgia 1832 Ruling: Georgia could not take Indian lands President Jackson was outraged “John Marshall had made his decision—now let him enforce it”

10 To avoid the ruling government officials signed a treaty with Cherokee leaders that favored relocation even though those leaders didn’t represent a majority of the Cherokee people US Army herded the Cherokee and forced them on a long deadly march west to Indiana 16,000 forced to leave—4,000 died Suffered from hunger, exposure, disease, and bandits Exodus known as “The Trail of Tears”

11 THE NATIONAL BANK Major issue concerned the Second National Bank of the USA Created in 1816 and chartered for 20 years Purpose of the bank was to regulate state banks which had grown rapidly since the first national bank closed in 1811 Jackson opposed the national bank because he said the Constitution didn’t give the government authority to create it

12 1832-Henry Clay and Daniel Webster (Nat. Rep.) propose renewing the bank It was an election-year ploy They thought Jackson’s opposition would hurt his chances at re-election Election of 1832—Jackson vs. Clay Jackson wins by landslide 1836—Second National Bank reduced to a state bank

13 CONFLICT OVER STATES’ RIGHTS STATES’ RIGHTS—Giving more power to the states Based on the Xth Amendment THE TARIFF CONTROVERSY 1816-Congress passes tariff on British imports Tariff increased in 1824 & 1828 Tariff welcomed by industry leaders It encouraged people to “buy American”

14 Agricultural southern states despised the tariff It forced southerners to buy more expensive northern goods instead of cheaper British goods Cotton farmers opposed interference in international trade Tariff drives wedge between Jackson and V-P John C. Calhoun

15 Calhoun advanced the idea that states could reject federal laws that states thought violated the Constitution This is called NULLIFICATION THEORY THE HAYNE-WEBSTER DEBATE 1830—Sen. Robert Hayne(SC) vs. Sen. Daniel Webster(MA) Hayne maintained that the federal government was a compact between states Nullification was a legal protest against federal legislation

16 Webster said the USA was one nation, not an agreement Reply ended with “Liberty AND Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!” Webster’s thundering defense made him famous overnight THE NULLIFICATION CRISIS 1832-Congress passes another tariff Nullification is put to the test

17 SC declared the tariff “null and void” SC threatened to SECEDE, or withdraw, from the Union if the federal government tried to enforce the tariff The event became know as “The Nullification Crisis” V-P Calhoun felt so strongly about the tariff that he resigned and became a senator from SC

18 Jackson demanded and received the Force Bill from Congress to use force to collect the tariff in SC. SC declared the Force Bill null and void as well Henry Clay worked out a compromise that tariffs would be reduced over a period of 10 years Issues of nullification and states’ rights would be raised again and again THE END

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